Why is it important for the walls of large arteries to have an abundant supply of elastic fibers
8. cyclic expansion and contraction of the arteries:
The heart is a vital human organ, and heart diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. However, little is known about the identity and quantity of the proteins that make up the heart. We use high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics to assess the healthy human heart proteome by measuring 16 anatomical regions and three main cardiac cell types. We were able to quantify over 10,700 proteins in this high dynamic range tissue using just a few micrograms of sample. We built a model of the heart proteome at the subcellular level by combining copy numbers per cell with protein organellar assignments. Cellular receptors have been identified as possible cell surface markers in cardiac fibroblasts. When we apply our heart map to atrial fibrillation, we find that each patient has a different set of mitochondrial dysfunctions. The heart map can be found at maxqb.biochem.mpg.de as a guide for future studies of normal and diseased heart function.
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1. the maximum pressure in the aorta during the cardiac cycle:
Arteries are responsible for supplying blood and nutrients to tissues. Arteries are constantly under stress. They have a lot of elastic tissue and less smooth muscle to deal with the tension. The presence of elastin in large blood vessels allows them to expand in size and change their diameter. When an artery enters a specific organ, it is further divided into smaller arteries with less elastic tissue and more smooth muscle. The rate of blood flow decreases as the diameter of blood vessels decreases. According to estimates, the arterial system contains 10% to 15% of total blood volume. The arterial system is characterized by high systemic pressure and low volume.
The elastic arteries and the muscular arteries are the two major types of arteries found in the body. Anatomically called arteries such as the brachial artery, radial artery, and femoral artery are examples of muscular arteries. In the tunica media layer of muscular arteries, there are more smooth muscle cells than in the tunica media layer of elastic arteries. The aorta and pulmonary arteries, which are closest to the heart, have much more elastic tissue in the tunica media than muscular arteries. Despite the continuous pumping activity of the heart, the elastic arteries are able to sustain a relatively constant pressure gradient.
The channels or conduits by which blood is distributed to body tissues are known as blood vessels. Two closed networks of tubes begin and end at the heart make up the vessels. Blood is transported from the right ventricle to the lungs and back to the left atrium through the pulmonary arteries. The systemic vessels, on the other hand, transport blood from the left ventricle to all areas of the body’s tissues before returning it to the right atrium. Blood vessels are known as arteries, capillaries, or veins based on their form and function.
Blood is carried away from the heart by arteries. The pulmonary arteries carry oxygen-depleted blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. The left ventricle sends oxygenated blood to the body tissues through systemic arteries. Blood is pumped from the ventricles through large elastic arteries, which branch into smaller and smaller arteries before microscopic arteries known as arterioles are formed. The arterioles are responsible for controlling blood flow into tissue capillaries. At any given time, about 10% of total blood volume is in the systemic arterial system.
Blood vessels transport blood across the body. A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart and branches into smaller vessels is known as an artery. The smallest arteries, known as arterioles, eventually branch into tiny capillaries, where nutrients and wastes are exchanged, and then join with other vessels that leave capillaries to form venules, small blood vessels that transport blood to a vein, a larger blood vessel that returns blood to the heart.
Blood is transported in two circuits through arteries and veins: the systemic circuit and the pulmonary circuit ((Figure)). Systemic arteries provide oxygen-rich blood to the body’s tissues. Since much of the oxygen borne by the arteries has been delivered to the cells, the blood returned to the heart by systemic veins contains less oxygen. In the pulmonary circuit, on the other hand, arteries bring low-oxygen blood primarily to the lungs for gas exchange. Pulmonary veins transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart, where it is injected back into systemic circulation. Despite their structural and functional differences, arteries and veins share certain characteristics.