## Conservative & nonconservative forces, kinetic & potential

Chemistry Regents #41-45 in January 2017 To show the answers and explanations, highlight them. 1 to 5 questions 6–10 inquiries 11–15 inquiries 16–20 inquiries Questions 21–25 26-30 inquiries 31-35 inquiries 36-40 inquiries Questions 41-45 Question No. 46-50 Questions 51-53 Questions 54-55 Questions 56-57 Questions 58-59 Questions 60-61 Questions 62-65 Questions 66-68 Questions 69-72 Questions 73-77 Questions 78-79 Questions 80-82 85-83 Questions from Other Regents Exams ExplanationsExplanationsExplanationsExplanationsExplanationsExplanationsExplanations Which temperature corresponds to the particles in a sample of matter having the highest average kinetic energy? (2) 267 K (4) 12°C3 highest average kinetic energy (1) 298 K (3) 27°C the warmest temperature 42 The change in the concentration of H+ ions in an aqueous solution corresponds to a pH decrease of one unit? (1) an increase of tenfold (2) a fall of tenfold (3) a rise of a hundredfold (4) a fall of a hundredfold 1 a 1 pH transition equals a 10 fold increase in H+2 necessitates the use of three distinct units in the diagram.

## Internal energy

Kinetic energy is a form of kinetic energy that is

### Average kinetic energy of a gas and root mean square

At the bottom of the track, the roller coaster cars hit their full kinetic energy. The kinetic energy starts to be transformed to gravitational potential energy as they begin to grow. When friction losses are ignored, the amount of kinetic and potential energy in the system remains constant. KE, Ek, or TSI unitjoule are common symbols (J) Derivations based on other variables 12mv2 = Ek
It is the amount of work necessary to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to a specified velocity. The body retains its kinetic energy after gaining it during acceleration unless its speed changes. As the body decelerates from its current speed to a state of rest, it does the same amount of work.
The adjective kinetic comes from the Greek word kinesis, which means “action.” Aristotle’s principles of actuality and potentiality are responsible for the distinction between kinetic and potential energy. [two]
The current scientific concepts of kinetic energy and function date from the mid-nineteenth century. Early understandings of these concepts can be credited to Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, who published Du Calcul de l’Effet des Machines in 1829, which outlined the mathematics of kinetic energy. Between 1849 and 1851, William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, is credited with coining the expression “kinetic energy.” [number four] (5)

### Kinetic energy and potential energy

The kinetic molecular theory of matter describes the microscopic properties of atoms (or molecules) and their interactions, which contribute to macroscopic properties that can be observed (such as pressure, volume, temperature). The theory can be used to understand why matter occurs in various phases (solid, liquid, and gas), as well as how matter can transition from one phase to another.
Let’s take the case of water. The water molecules in their solid state (ice) have very little energy and cannot travel away from each other. The molecules are arranged in a regular pattern known as a lattice. The energy of the molecules in ice increases as it is heated. This means that certain water molecules are able to resolve the intermolecular forces that keep them close together, allowing them to move farther apart and form liquid water. The molecules in liquid water have more space to travel than they did in the solid lattice, which is why it can flow. The liquid water will become water vapor, which is a gas, if the molecules are heated further. Gas particles have more energy and, on average, are separated from one another by distances far greater than the size of the atoms/molecules. Given the large distances between the particles, the attractive forces between them are very small.

### Kinetic energy and potential energy

Gases were one of the first compounds to be investigated using the modern scientific method, which was established in the 1600s. It didn’t take long to notice that gases all had similar physical properties, implying that gases could be explained by a single theory. The kinetic molecular theory of gases is a model that aids in the understanding of gas physical properties at the molecular level. It is built around the following ideas:
This state of matter is defined by the kinetic molecular theory of gases as being made up of tiny particles in constant motion with a large distance between them.
Since the majority of a gas’s volume is empty space, it has a low density and can expand or contract under the right conditions. Due to the continuous motion of gas particles, two or more gases will often overlap as the particles from the individual gases travel and collide. The magnitude of the gas pressure is measured by the number of collisions the gas particles have with the walls of their container and the force with which they collide.