Which statement best describes temperature variations?
How to make a climate graph
Given the scale and immense heat power of the global oceans, even a modest increase in Earth’s average yearly surface temperature requires a huge amount of heat energy. Although the 2-degree rise in global average surface temperature since the pre-industrial period (1880-1900) may seem negligible, it reflects a substantial increase in accumulated heat. The extra heat is causing regional and seasonal temperature extremes, reducing snow cover and sea ice, intensifying heavy rainfall, and shifting plant and animal habitat ranges—expanding some and contracting others.
Investigate the following interactive graph: To view various sections of the graph, click and drag. Keep down the Shift key when clicking and dragging to pinch or expand the graph in either direction. Since 1880 (source data), average annual global temperatures have been compared to the long-term average (1901-2000). The long-term average temperature for the entire world is shown by the zero line, while the blue and red bars indicate the difference above or below average for each year.
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Temperatures fluctuate constantly. Temperatures can drop by 5, 10, even 20 degrees or more overnight in some areas. In the northern hemisphere, we see steady rises in daily and monthly average temperatures as winter gives way to spring and summer, then see them dropping as summer gives way to autumn, and then back to winter. Climate trends arise when we look at temperature on a regional or global scale over a long period of time.
Earth’s atmosphere has been exposed to many frequent changes throughout its history. During the Early Eocene Climatic Maximum, for example, Earth was fully ice-free and temperatures were hot enough for turtles and palm trees to flourish at the poles. Ice sheets covered about a third of the Earth’s surface during the Last Glacial Maximum, which existed between 26,500 and 19,000 years ago. Today, we are somewhere in the middle of the continuum. Near the poles, snow and ice are present all year and seasonally at lower latitudes. Glaciers cover about 10% of the Earth’s surface and can be found on all continents except Australia.
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Widespread shifts in weather patterns are related to increasing global average temperatures. Extreme weather conditions such as heat waves and massive storms are expected to become more frequent or violent as a result of human-caused climate change, according to scientific reports. This chapter focuses on temperature, precipitation, hurricanes, floods, and droughts that have been observed.
Long-term climate change has the ability to impact many facets of society, either directly or indirectly. Warmer average temperatures, for example, could raise air conditioning costs and impact the spread of diseases such as Lyme disease, but they could also improve growing conditions for certain crops. Climate fluctuations that are more serious pose a challenge to society. Increased frequency and intensity of extreme heat events may lead to an increase in illnesses and deaths, especially among vulnerable populations, as well as crop damage. While increased precipitation can help to replenish water sources and support agriculture, severe storms can cause property damage, loss of life, and population relocation, as well as disrupt critical services like transportation, telecommunications, electricity, and water.
How to determine if a table represents direct variation
Temperature lag is a major factor in diurnal temperature variation: peak daily temperatures generally occur after noon, as air tends to retain heat after noon, and minimum daily temperatures generally occur after midnight, if not during the early morning in the hour around dawn, as heat is lost all night. Seasonal lag is a similar annual phenomenon.
Conduction heats a shallow 1–3-centimetre (0.39–1.18 in) layer of air immediately above the ground when solar radiation hits the Earth’s surface each morning. The heat transfer from this shallow layer of warm air to the cooler air above is inefficient. On a hot summer day, for example, air temperatures will differ by 16.5 degrees Celsius (30 degrees Fahrenheit) from just above the ground to waist level. For several hours after noon, incoming solar radiation exceeds outgoing heat energy, and equilibrium is normally achieved about 3–5 p.m., although this may be influenced by a number of factors such as large bodies of water, soil type and cover, wind, cloud cover/water vapor, and ground moisture. 1st