Which of the following statements is true of neurotransmitters?
- Which of the following statements is true of neurotransmitters?
- Which statement below is true about neurotransmitters
- Which of the following is true about neurotransmitters quizlet
- Which of the following statements regarding heterotrimeric g protein signaling is true?
- Which of the following statements is true of neurotransmitters psychology
- Which of the following statements is true of g proteins
Which statement below is true about neurotransmitters
C is the correct answer (Chap. 467) Many neurotransmitters in the brain are affected by alcohol. Alcohol’s main effect is to induce the release of -aminobutyric acid (GABA), and it does so mainly through GABAA receptors. GABA is the brain’s main inhibitory neurotransmitter, and it’s linked to alcohol’s sedative impact. Benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepine sleep aids like zolpidem, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants are only a few of the medications that influence the GABA system. Increases in dopamine, which is present in all pleasurable activities, are linked to the euphoric effects of alcohol consumption. The effects of dopamine on alcohol craving and relapse are thought to be significant. Furthermore, during acute consumption, alcohol alters opioid receptors and may result in the release of -endorphins. Alcohol inhibits postsynaptic NMDA excitatory glutamate receptors in addition to these effects. Glutamate is the brain’s main excitatory neurotransmitter, and its suppression leads to alcohol’s sedative impact. Increased serotonin production and reduced nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are two other essential neurotransmitter results.
Which of the following is true about neurotransmitters quizlet
Neurotransmitters can never touch the postsynaptic neuron, as explained above. They can bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron’s membrane, then release and be dealt with in the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitter may simply diffuse away from the synapse in some cases, but synaptic proteins are usually involved in the recycling process. Some enzymes split the neurotransmitter into pieces, which are then reassembled in the presynaptic neuron. A typical example of this form of enzyme is acetylcholinesterase. Membrane pumps are used by other neurons to extract neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft.
When an action potential reaches the presynaptic neuron’s end, voltage-gated calcium channels are activated, allowing calcium to penetrate the neuron. The release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft is stimulated by the calcium influx.
The neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the surface of the postsynaptic neuron to produce small electrical stimuli. In order for an action potential to be produced, the amount of these stimuli must exceed threshold.
Which of the following statements regarding heterotrimeric g protein signaling is true?
These chemicals can be stored by a neuron or secretory cell, packed in secretory / synaptic vesicles, and then released with other neurotransmitters when an action potential provides the required stimulus.
Which of the following statements is true of neurotransmitters psychology
Irwin Kopin of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke is credited with developing the idea of a false transmitter after discovering that the drug tyramine raised blood pressure by being loaded and then released from secretory vesicles of the adrenal chromaffin cells. Tyramine may also be transformed to octopamine by the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), a false transmitter that displaces noradrenaline from its vesicle but does not trigger the postsynaptic alpha adrenoreceptor.
There is mounting evidence that a variety of well-known exogenous chemicals act as replacement neurotransmitters, but the difference between the classical and substitute neurotransmitter models is only visible with neurotransmitters critical to conscious brain signaling, such as dopamine and serotonin (as mentioned above). As shown by the interference that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have on serotonergic psychedelic medications, drugs that impair the uptake affinity of neurotransmitter transporters directly affect the efficacy of these replacement neurotransmitters.
Which of the following statements is true of g proteins
The variety of animals shown in Figure 16.2 illustrates how nervous systems vary in structure and complexity throughout the animal kingdom. Sea sponges, for example, lack a true nervous system. Others, such as jellyfish, lack a true brain in favor of a “nerve net,” which is made up of separate but linked nerve cells (neurons). Nerve cells in echinoderms like sea stars are packed into fibers called nerves. Flatworms of the phylum Platyhelminthes have both a central nervous system (CNS), made up of a small “brain” and two nerve cords, and a peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprising a system of nerves that stretch across the body. The nervous system of insects is more complex, but it is also decentralized. There’s a cortex, a ventral nerve cord, and ganglia in there (clusters of connected neurons). Without the help of the brain, these ganglia may regulate gestures and behaviors. Octopi have one of the most complex nervous systems of any invertebrate, with nerves arranged in specialized lobes and eyes that are structurally close to those of vertebrate animals.