Karl marx & conflict theory: crash course sociology #6
Another descriptive theory regarding society and the relationship between rules and laws, as well as why society needs them, is social contract theory. A world without rules and laws to regulate our conduct, according to Thomas Hobbes (1588-1689), would be a terrible place to live. A culture without laws, according to Hobbes, is living in a “state of nature.” People will behave of their own volition in such a state, with no regard for their culture. In a natural setting, life will be Darwinian, with the strongest surviving and the weak perishing. Hobbes’ state of nature society will be devoid of the conveniences and necessities that we take for granted in modern western society. The society will consist of:
The social contract theory is a pessimistic, but maybe plausible, vision of society without laws and people to implement them. When a world is thrown into turmoil due to a tragic event, it is an example of a society in a state of nature. This could happen as a result of a conflict, as in Rwanda, or as a result of a natural disaster, as in New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In each of these cases, a part of society devolved from a nation governed by the rule of law to a population living in the wild. Rules and rules were ignored, and survival was decided by brute force. Unfortunately, culture devolves into a state of nature without laws and regulations, as well as citizens to enforce certain laws and rules.
This last issue is the one we’ll be concentrating on in this chapter. We’ll look at three different approaches to this question: psychological egoism, ethical egoism, and social contract theory. Before we get into the specifics of each theory, here’s a quick overview: True altruistic action, according to psychological egoism, is nothing more than wishful thinking and anything we do is by definition self-serving. Ethical egoism takes it a step further, arguing that even though we might be unselfish, we should put ourselves first and disregard any ethical demands. Finally, social contract theory asserts that ethics is rooted in self-interest, implying that we can really consider others but only if doing so is consistent with what we want and need for ourselves.
Psychological egoists claim that everything we do, even though we don’t realize it, is self-serving. Self-sacrificial practices, such as using oneself as a human shield to defend others in a mass shooting, cannot disprove psychological egoism because self-sacrifice is not motivated by altruistic concern. Instead, they actually do what they like the most. In those conditions, sacrificing one’s life was the most appealing choice. Given that doing what one wants is in one’s best interests, “self-sacrificing” action is egoistic once more. Altruism is a figment of the imagination.
What is legal translation? what does legal
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, born in Geneva in 1712, was one of the most influential political thinkers of the 18th century. His work centered on the relationship between human society and the citizen, and it influenced the ideas that eventually led to the French Revolution.
From the late 17th to the early 19th centuries, the Enlightenment’s focus on rationality dominated metaphysical, political, and scientific discourse. Matthew White traces the Enlightenment from its beginnings in the wake of the Civil War to its current ramifications.
Simpsons predictions: what could still come true during
Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher and scientist, was a pivotal figure in the Enlightenment’s political debates. He proposed a social contract theory focused on the absolute sovereign’s relationship with civil society.
In the 18th century, the Enlightenment was a philosophical movement that dominated the realm of ideas in Europe. It encompassed a wide variety of ideas based on rationality as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and it helped to promote values like equality, change, democracy, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state. The Enlightenment is often credited with laying the groundwork for modern western political and intellectual culture. By adopting democratic principles and institutions, as well as the emergence of new, liberal democracy, it brought political modernization to the west. Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher and scientist, was a pivotal figure in the period’s political debates. Despite advocating sovereign absolutism, Hobbes established some of the foundations of European liberal thought: the individual’s right; all men’s natural equality; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the state); and the belief that all legitimate political power must be “representative” and based on the rule of law.