Which of the following statements describes the eukaryotic chromosome
Chromosome chromatin and chromatid
Francis Crick and James Watson collaborated on the structure of DNA in the 1950s at the University of Cambridge in England. Linus Pauling and Maurice Wilkins were two other scientists who were interested in this area. X-ray crystallography was used by Pauling to discover the secondary structure of proteins. X-ray crystallography is a technique for studying molecular structure by looking at the patterns generated by X-rays passing through a substance’s crystal. The patterns show vital details about the composition of the molecule in question. Rosalind Franklin, a researcher in Wilkins’ lab, was studying the structure of DNA with X-ray crystallography. Using Franklin’s details, Watson and Crick were able to piece together the puzzle of the DNA molecule (Figure 9.2). Key pieces of knowledge from other researchers, such as Chargaff’s rules, were also available to Watson and Crick. Two types of monomers (nucleotides) were always present in equal amounts in a DNA molecule, according to Chargaff, and the other two types were also always present in equal amounts. As a result, they were still partnered together in some way. The Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins in 1962 for their work in deciding the structure of DNA.
Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic chromosomes (2016) ib biology
The levels of packaging from raw DNA molecules to the chromosomal structures seen during metaphase in mitosis or meiosis are referred to as eukaryotic chromosome structure. Long strands of DNA carrying genetic details make up chromosomes. Eukaryotic chromosomes are much larger than prokaryotic chromosomes and are linear chromosomes. 1st Eukaryotic chromosomes are also stored in the nucleus of the cell, while prokaryotic cells’ chromosomes are not.
Many scientists in the 1900s came to the same conclusions regarding heredity as Gregor Mendel. Plant and animal cells both have a central compartment called the nucleus, according to scientists. They soon discovered that chromosomes were located within the nucleus and that they provided information for a variety of traits.
In eukaryotes, such as humans, 3.2 billion nucleotides are distributed across 23 chromosomes (males have a Y chromosome instead of X compared to females). Of chromosome is made up of a long linear DNA molecule and proteins that fold and stack the fine DNA thread into a more compact structure. [two]
Dna replication in eukaryotes 4 | replication termination and
The presence of a membrane-bound nucleus is the main characteristic that separates a eukaryotic cell from a prokaryotic cell. This nucleus serves as the cell’s “power center,” storing all of the cell’s genetic material, or DNA. The nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, comprises pores that control the flow of molecules into and out of the nucleus.
Chromosomes are made up of DNA that is arranged within the nucleus. A chromosome is a DNA molecule tightly coiled around proteins called histones at its most basic level. Multiple linear chromosomes are found in eukaryotic cells.
Individual DNA molecules are extremely long, containing millions of base pairs (nucleotides that are paired together). How do cells store molecules that are so massive and potentially unwieldy? DNA is compacted, coiled, and folded into a compact form, similar to how yarn or thread is woven onto a spool.
Each chromosome’s double helix-shaped DNA molecule is first coiled around clusters of histone proteins. A nucleosome is the smallest unit of DNA-packing structure, consisting of about 200 DNA base pairs wrapped around eight histone proteins.
Eukaryotic genome organization 1 | chromosome
Deciphering the mechanisms that preserve genomic stability requires an understanding of the regulatory principles that ensure complete DNA replication in each cell division. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have enabled full mapping of DNA replication sites, allowing researchers to step beyond detecting replication patterns at a few single loci to examining replication patterns across the entire genome. These breakthroughs discuss issues like the relationship between replication initiation events, transcription, and chromatin modifications, as well as the identification of possible replication origin consensus sequences. This unit summarizes the technical and fundamental aspects of replication profiling, as well as explains DNA replication dynamics on a whole-genome scale, and briefly addresses novel insights arising from mining large datasets published in the last three years.