Which of the following represents the correct flow of air into the lung of a mammal?

Which of the following represents the correct flow of air into the lung of a mammal?

Alveoli: gas exchange

Gas exchange is officially known as external respiration. It encompasses the bulk flow of air into and out of the lungs, as well as the absorption of oxygen and carbon dioxide into the bloodstream. Though pressure changes in the lungs cause the bulk flow of air from the outside, the mechanisms of alveolar gas exchange are more complicated. The surface area of the alveolar membrane, the partial pressure gradients of the gases, and the matching of perfusion and ventilation are the three primary components of external respiration.
The alveolar membrane has thin walls that are protected by a fluid extracellular matrix that provides a barrier for gas molecules in the lungs’ air to diffuse through, from which they can then diffuse into the capillaries.

Surface area, volume, and life

The act of breathing, also known as pulmonary ventilation, is described as the movement of air into and out of the lungs. The air pressure inside the alveoli, known as alveolar pressure (Palv), and the pressure inside the pleural cavity, known as intrapleural pressure, are the three major mechanisms that drive pulmonary ventilation (Pip).
The respiratory center in the brain stem regulates breathing in response to CO2 levels.
The basic breathing rhythm is set by the Medulla Oblongata (pacemaker).
Pons affects the depth and duration of breathing by smoothing out the respiratory rate.
Higher brain centers—the cerebrum—allow voluntary breathing changes, but only to a limited degree.
One may opt to hold their breath for a period of time, but as CO2 levels rise, the respiratory center will ultimately take over.
Certain physical characteristics of the lungs influence alveolar and intrapleural pressures. The ability to breathe, or the ability to allow air enter and exit the lungs during inspiration and expiration, is, however, dependent on the air pressure in the atmosphere and the air pressure within the lungs.

Homeostasis – negative and positive feedback

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is detected by cells and can activate signals that alter gene expression in various tissues, resulting in changes in organismal functions. Despite mounting evidence that CO2 elevation (hypercapnia) activates genes and signaling pathways in different organisms, it remains unclear how hypercapnia activates genes and signaling pathways, or whether they interact, are incorporated, or are conserved across species. We investigated the interaction/integration/conservation of hypercapnia-induced genomic responses in mammals (mice and humans) as well as invertebrates in this large-scale transcriptomic research (Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster). In vivo and in several cell lines of different tissue origin, hypercapnia triggered genes that control Wnt signaling in mouse lungs and skeletal muscles. Secondary review of available transcriptomic datasets of hypercapnia in a human bronchial cell line, flies, and nematodes revealed similar hypercapnia-responsive Wnt pathway homologues. Our findings point to a long-standing evolutionary role for high CO2 in controlling Wnt pathway genes.

Control of respiration (regulation of breathing)

The respiratory system is a system that helps you to breathe.

Anaerobic respiration in the muscles | physiology | biology

The human respiratory system is depicted in its entirety, with all of its components and functions.

Lung function – lung volumes and capacities


Countercurrent exchange (gills)

Identifying Characters

Respiration gas exchange

Latinsystema respiratorium (respiratory system)

Respiratory system song


Science – breathing in animals, insects – english

Terminology used in anatomy

Which of the following represents the correct flow of air into the lung of a mammal? 2021

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The respiratory system (also known as the respiratory apparatus or ventilatory system) is a biological system in animals and plants that consists of various organs and structures for gas exchange. The anatomy and physiology that causes this to happen differs significantly depending on the organism’s size, environment, and evolutionary background. The respiratory surface of land animals is internalized as lungs linings. 1st Millions of small air sacs in the lungs exchange gas; in mammals and reptiles, these are called alveoli, and in birds, they are called atria. The air is brought into direct contact with the blood by these microscopic air sacs, which provide an abundant blood supply. [2] These air sacs interact with the outside world through a series of airways, or hollow tubes, the largest of which is the trachea, which branches into the two main bronchi in the center of the chest. These join the lungs and branch into increasingly narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi, which branch into a plethora of smaller tubes known as bronchioles. The bronchioles in birds are known as parabronchi. In mammals, it is the bronchioles, or parabronchi, that open into the microscopic alveoli, and in birds, it is the atria. The process of breathing, which includes the muscles of respiration, must pump air from the atmosphere into the alveoli or atria.