Which of the following lists the terms from simplest to most complex?
Levels of organization in biology
Cells, which are made up of a variety of molecules, make up all living structures. Cells are the tiniest, self-contained living creatures in the human body. The body is made up of a variety of cell types, each with its own function (for example muscle cells contract to move something, and red blood cells carry oxygen). A cell membrane (thin outer layer) covers a jelly-like cellular fluid containing tiny organ-like structures called organelles in all human cells. Organelles come in a variety of shapes and sizes, each with its own purpose (for example, organelles called mitochondrion provides energy to a cell). Organelles are found in various quantities and forms in different types of cells, depending on their function (for example muscle cells use a lot of energy and therefore have many mitochondria while skin cells do not and have few mitochondria).
The human body’s cells, like those of other multicellular organisms, are organized into tissues. A tissue is a set of identical cells that work together to accomplish a particular goal. In humans, there are four distinct types of tissue (muscular, epithelial, nervous and connective). An organ is a distinguishable body structure made up of two or more tissue types (for example, the stomach contains muscular tissue made up of muscle cells that enables it to change shape, as well as epithelial tissue that lines the inside and outside of the stomach).
Biological levels in biology: the world tour
Before you start studying the various structures and functions of the human body, it’s a good idea to think about its basic architecture, or how the body’s smallest pieces are put together to form larger structures. It’s helpful to think of the body’s structures in terms of fundamental levels of organization that increase in complexity, such as hormones, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and an organism (from smallest to largest).
Figure 1.2.1 – Human Body Structural Organization Levels: From the smallest chemical building blocks to a unique human organism, the organization of the body is often debated in terms of six distinct levels of increasing complexity.
Scientists research the simplest building blocks of matter, subatomic particles, atoms, and molecules, to study the chemical level of organization. Any atom in the universe is made up of one or more distinct pure substances known as elements. Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, and iron are examples of these elements. An atom is the smallest unit of all of these pure substances (elements). Protons, electrons, and neutrons are subatomic particles that make up atoms. A molecule is made up of two or more atoms, such as water molecules, proteins, and sugars found in living things. All body components are made up of chemicals, which are the chemical building blocks.
Levels of organization
Order, sensitivity or reaction to the environment, reproduction, growth and development, control, homeostasis, and energy processing are all main characteristics or functions shared by all living organisms. These eight characteristics, when considered together, help to describe existence.
Organisms are multicellular structures that are highly organized and coordinated. Also single-celled organisms are astonishingly complex: atoms within each cell form molecules, which in turn form cell organelles and other cellular inclusions. Related cells shape tissues in multicellular organisms. Tissues, in turn, work together to form organs (body structures with a distinct function). Organ systems are made up of organs that function together.
Organisms can respond to a wide range of stimuli. Plants, for example, may grow toward a light source, climb on fences and walls, and respond to touch. Chemotaxis is the ability of bacteria to switch toward or away from chemicals or light (phototaxis). A positive response is one that moves toward a stimulus, whereas a negative response is one that moves away from it.
Cells, tissues, organs, systems
Learn more about how young children develop phonological awareness skills, why it’s so important to teach this ability, and how multisensory instruction can help. You’ll also find examples of phonological knowledge lessons.
Words (counting words in a sentence) is a phonological awareness ability, not a language comprehension skill. There’s a reason this move is included in the sequence. Language can be difficult for children with limited language skills and English language learners at this stage. Failure to excel at phonological awareness skills would be hindered if this level is poor.
The sounds of speech in oral language are processed by our brains. This role is dedicated to a specific region of the brain, which happens spontaneously as we listen. Our minds, on the other hand, aren’t pre-wired to convert speech sounds into letters. Since learning to decipher in English involves matching the sounds in spoken words to individual written letters, children must become aware of phonemes as they learn to read.