Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in birds and mammals
044 how blood flows through the heart
Method of circulation The circulatory system of the human body (simplified). The color red denotes oxygenated blood flowing through arteries. The color blue means that the blood in the veins is deoxygenated. The lymphatic vessels and capillaries that connect the arteries and veins are not seen. IdentifiersMeSHD002319TA98A12.0.00.000TA23891FMA7161MeSHD002319TA98A12.0.00.000TA23891FMA7161MeSHD002319TA98A12. Terminology used in anatomy [Wikidata] [Wikidata] [Wikidata] [Wikidata] [
The circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular or vascular system, is an organ system that allows blood to circulate and carry nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the body’s cells in order to provide nourishment, aid in disease prevention, and maintain homeostasis.
The lymphatic system, which circulates lymph, is part of the circulatory system.
 Lymph takes much longer to move through than blood.
 Blood is a fluid made up of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is pumped by the heart by the vertebrate vascular system, delivering oxygen and nutrients to all body tissues while also transporting waste materials away. Excess blood plasma is effectively recycled and returned to the lymphatic system after being drained from the interstitial fluid (between cells). The cardiovascular system includes the blood, pulse, and blood vessels (from Latin terms meaning “heart” and “vessel”).  The lymphatic system is made up of lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels, and it is responsible for returning filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph.
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A human red blood cell is on its way to provide oxygen to a cell in the thumb through an artery in the left arm. This red blood cell must move through two capillary beds on its way from the arm artery to the left ventricle.
Since the total cross-sectional area of capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of arteries or any other portion of the circulatory system, the velocity of blood flow is the slowest.
The pH of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid is influenced by carbon dioxide levels. The medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, measures pH and uses this measure to regulate breathing, allowing the organism to detect a change in gas levels.
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Invertebrates have basic circulatory systems, whereas vertebrates have more complex systems. The simplest species, such as sponges (Porifera) and rotifers (Rotifera), do not need a circulatory system because diffusion allows for sufficient water, nutrient, and waste exchange, as well as dissolved gas exchange (figure a). Jellies (Cnidaria) and comb jellies (Ctenophora), which are more complex but still have only two layers of cells in their body plan, use diffusion through their epidermis and internally through the gastrovascular compartment. Their internal and external tissues are both immersed in water and exchange fluids through diffusion on both sides (figure b). The pulsing of the jellyfish body helps in the exchange of fluids.
Figure 1: (PageIndex1) Animals who don’t have a circulatory system include: Simple animals with just a single cell layer, like the sponge (a), or a few cell layers, like the jellyfish (b), lack a circulatory system. Gases, nutrients, and wastes are instead exchanged by diffusion.
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The heart is a complex muscle that pumps blood into the circulatory system’s three divisions: coronary (vessels that serve the heart), pulmonary (heart and lungs), and systemic (blood vessels in the body) (systems of the body). Coronary circulation, which is unique to the heart, draws blood directly from the heart’s main artery (aorta). The heart must pump blood to the lungs or the rest of the body for pulmonary and systemic circulation, respectively. Since the right side of the heart has a shorter distance to pump, the muscle wall on that side is not as dense as the left side, which must have enough pressure to pump blood all the way to the big toe.
The systemic circuit, pulmonary circuit, and coronary circuit are the three circuits that make up the mammalian circulatory system. Blood is pumped into the right atrium of the heart from veins in the systemic circuit, then into the right ventricle. The blood then reaches the pulmonary circuit, where the lungs oxygenate it. The left atrium is where blood returns to the heart from the pulmonary circuit. Blood returns to the systemic circuit through the aorta from the left ventricle and is distributed across the body. There is no representation of the coronary circuit, which supplies blood to the heart.