Which of the following correctly explains the role of enzymes in biochemical reactions?
How do enzymes work? (activation energy)
a) the combustion of gasoline in a car engine to pass a carb; b) the photosynthetic generation of sugar generating electricity by damming a riverd) listening to music by replacing the batteries in your CD playere) all of the above
An organism’s metabolism is separate from its environment.
Since energy must be conserved, species recycle energy continuously and therefore do not need energy input.
Energy is obtained by organisms from their surroundings.
The heat produced by the organism is stored inside the organism rather than being lost to the atmosphere.
none of the preceding
To account for the increased entropy associated with plant growth, the universe’s entropy must decrease.
Photosynthesis generates energy, which is used by the plant to expand.
The crops must represent an open system in order to follow the first rule.
The growth of the crops must be uninhibited.
none of the preceding
a) An organism’s total energy consumption must be greater than the total energy stored or released by the organism. b) As long as the total energy is conserved, energy may be freely transformed into various types. c) Photosynthetic species use sunlight to generate energy in the form of sugars. d) As a consequence of the processes of life, all species must generate some heat. e)Living organisms are expected to increase the entropy of their system.
How do enzymes work?enzymes are nothing but catalysts of
Enzymes are enzymes that function as biological catalysts. Catalysts minimize the reaction’s activation energy. The quicker a reaction is, the lower its activation energy is. As a result, enzymes accelerate reactions by lowering the activation energy. When substrates bind to enzymes, they change shape. The precise orientation of the enzyme necessary for catalytic activity can be induced by the binding of the substrate, which is known as “induced suit.”
Active sites are found in enzymes. The enzyme active site is the area on the enzyme surface where substrates bind and the enzyme catalyzes the chemical reaction. At the active site, there is a precise substrate interaction that is stabilized by various weak interactions (hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic contacts, and van der Waals forces).
Enzymes: the induced fit model
Alex is a 15-month-old boy from the state of Washington. His parents work for a nongovernmental organization in Gambia, where he is spending the summer. Alex’s appetite started to wane about three weeks after they arrived in Gambia, and his parents noticed that he seemed unusually tired, fatigued, and confused. When he was outside, particularly during the day, he seemed irritable. His parents assumed he had contracted a 24-hour infection when he started vomiting, but when his symptoms continued, they took him to a doctor. Alex’s reflexes seemed abnormally slow, and when she studied his eyes with a light, she found that they were unusually light sensitive. Alex seemed to have a sore neck as well.
What is a protein? learn about the 3d shape and function of
All enzymes were once thought to be proteins, but the catalytic capacity of some nucleic acids known as ribozymes (or catalytic RNAs) has been demonstrated since the 1980s, disproving this axiom. Since so little is known about the enzymatic activity of RNA, the focus of this discussion will be on protein enzymes.
Polypeptide chains are long chains of amino acids that make up a large protein enzyme molecule. The amino acid sequence specifies the protein’s structure’s characteristic folding patterns, which is critical for enzyme specificity. The protein structure can lose its integrity (denature) and enzymatic capacity if the enzyme is exposed to changes, such as changes in temperature or pH. Denaturation may be reversed in some cases, but not all.
A cofactor is a chemical component bound to some enzymes that is a direct participant in the catalytic event and thus necessary for enzymatic action. A cofactor may be a coenzyme, which is an organic molecule like a vitamin, or an inorganic metal ion, which certain enzymes require. The enzyme may be firmly or loosely attached to a cofactor. The cofactor is referred to as a prosthetic community if it is closely connected.