Which of the following contributes most directly to the hardness of bones?

Which of the following contributes most directly to the hardness of bones?

Which structure is seen at the arrow?

Swimming, as a weight-bearing exercise, is advised to help avoid osteoporosis. Swimming is not a weight-bearing sport, but it is not recommended for osteoporosis prevention. 12What is compact bone’s structural unit?
Intramembranous ossification during embryonic development19 bone remodeling in response to changes in mechanical stress
The development of blood cells inside the red marrow cavities of some bones is referred to as hematopoiesis.
The matrix of the cartilage starts to deteriorate.
In the fibrous connective tissue, an ossification center develops.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the osteoid material secreted by the cells in panel A as shown by the arrow?
Collagen and calcium-binding proteins are secreted by osteoblasts.
Osteogenic cells have the ability to transform into osteoclasts.
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that lower calcium levels in the blood?
Secondary ossification centers generate is produced by secondary ossification centers
Since it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels, the periosteum serves mainly to protect the bone.

Which of the following is a bone marking described as a round or oval opening through a bone?

Bones provide skeletal support to the body, as well as a home for hemopoietic cells and a calcium and phosphate reservoir.

Which description of bone cells is incorrect?

The periosteum and endosteum are essential for bone growth, fracture healing, and remodeling.

The blood vessels and nerve in the figure are found within which type of space?

[12] The visible differences in the periosteum’s microscopic appearance are dictated by the functional condition of the bone.

Bones do not have a role in


Which bone-forming process is shown in the figure?


The main role of the axial skeleton is to help us manipulate our environment.

Cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteoprogenitor cells) are found in the periosteum and endosteum, which are essential for bone growth and remodeling. Understanding the histology of the endosteum and periosteum will aid in the diagnosis of bone pathologies.
The Bone’s Ground Section: The ground section is traditionally used to examine the histology of the bone without staining it. The bone can be examined histologically without calcification in the ground portion. Other Techniques for Preparing Undecalcified Bone for Periosteum and Endosteum Research [45][46][47] [45][46][47] [45][46][ [48]: Immunohistochemical staining techniques and RT-PCR may be used to examine the phenotypic properties of the human periosteum, as well as the distribution of cells across different strata. Fluorescence Microscopy is a form of microscopy that uses light to see [50] [Fifty] [51]:TRAP stain (tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase), Incubate cells in 110 mM acetate buffer (pH 5.2) containing 1.1 mM sodium nitrite and 7.4 mM tartrate for 15 minutes with ELF97 substrate (Sigma Aldrich). [Page 51] [49] Light Microscopy:Transmission Electron Microscopy for Decalcified Bone [52][53][54] (TEM)

A homeostatic imbalance that activates these bone cells would lead to a loss of bone density.

Bones are made up of different cells, proteins, minerals, and vitamins and are living tissue with their own blood vessels. They can evolve, transform, and repair themselves throughout their lives thanks to this structure.
Around 300 soft bones are present when we are born. Cartilage develops and is gradually replaced by hard bone during childhood and adolescence. Any of these bones eventually join together, resulting in a 206-bone adult skeleton.
Form I collagen (94 percent) and non-collagenous proteins make up osteoid. The presence of mineral salt in the osteoid matrix, which is a crystalline complex of calcium and phosphate, gives bone its hardness and rigidity (hydroxyapatite). Calcified bone is made up of around 25% organic matrix (of which 2-5 percent are cells), 5% water, and 70% inorganic mineral (hydroxyapatite).
When osteoblasts produce osteoid at a rapid rate, woven bone is formed. This happens in all foetal bones at first, but the woven bone is eventually replaced by remodelling and deposition of more resilient lamellar bone. Woven bone is formed in adults when new bone is formed at a rapid rate, such as when a fracture is repaired. Woven bone is remodelled and lamellar bone is deposited after a fracture. Lamellar bone makes up almost half of the bone in a stable mature adult.

Which of the following contributes most directly to the hardness of bones? 2021

The mineral salts mainly consist of hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate mineral. Calcification is the crystallization and hardening of tissue caused by the accumulation of mineral salts on the collagen fiber matrix. Calcification can only take place in the presence of collagen fibers.
Long bones have a shaft and two ends and are longer than they are wide. Bone marrow is contained in a marrow cavity in the diaphysis, or central shaft. The epiphyses are the rounded ends of the bones that are coated in articular cartilage and filled with red bone marrow that contains blood cells (Figure 19.17). Long bones, such as the femur, tibia, ulna, and radius, make up the majority of the limb bones. The patella, as well as the bones of the wrist and ankle, are exceptions.
Short bones, also known as cuboidal bones, have the same width and length, forming a cube-like shape. The bones of the wrist (carpals) and ankle (tarsals), for example, are small bones (Figure 19.16).
Flat bones are thin and relatively wide bones that are found where substantial organ defense or broad muscle attachment surfaces are needed. The sternum (breast bone), ribs, scapulae (shoulder blades), and the roof of the skull are all flat bones (Figure 19.16).