Which of the following contains a coded message of how to construct a protein?
Practice writing the complementary strand of dna and mrna
The dynamic mixture of interacting components within a living thing decides its characteristics. Proteins are responsible for a lot of the chemical work within cells, so they play a major role in deciding what those characteristics are. However, since certain proteins owe their life to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), we must look for the answer there.
Starting with the simplest building blocks of DNA is the simplest way to understand how it is structured. DNA is made up of four different sugars that interact in specific ways with one another. Adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) are the four sugars that make up nucleotide bases (G). Consider these four foundations to be letters in a letter alphabet, the alphabet of life!
We can create a small piece of DNA or a very short word by connecting these nucleotides into a sequence, such as GATCATCCG. A much longer piece of DNA can thus be compared to a series of words strung together to form a sentence, or gene, that describes how to construct a protein. A longer piece of DNA may also contain details about when the protein should be produced. A cell’s entire genome contains enough words and sentences to act as a master summary or model for a human being (or an animal, a plant, or a microorganism).
Java swing gui programming tutorial | java swing
The amino acid sequence of proteins is determined by the sequence of nucleotides in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Proteins are not made directly from DNA, despite the fact that the linear sequence of nucleotides in DNA provides the details for protein sequences. Rather, a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule is synthesized from DNA and guides the protein’s creation. Adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U) are the four nucleotides that make up RNA (U). The codon, which codes for an amino acid, is made up of three adjacent nucleotides. AUG, for example, is a codon that identifies methionine as an amino acid. Three codons do not code for amino acids but do signify the end of a protein. The 20 amino acids that make up proteins are defined by the remaining 61 codons. The AUG codon is located at the beginning of an mRNA and indicates the start of a protein, in addition to coding for methionine. Methionine and tryptophan are the only two amino acids for which a single codon exists (AUG and UGG, respectively). Two to six codons code for the remaining 18 amino acids. The code is called degenerate since most of the 20 amino acids are coded for by more than one codon.
How viruses work – molecular biology simplified (dna, rna
The knowledge required to make functional molecules called proteins is found in most genes. (A few genes generate regulatory molecules that aid in protein synthesis in the cell.) Within each cell, the process of turning a gene into a protein is complicated and tightly regulated. Transcription and translation are the two main steps. Gene expression refers to the combination of transcription and translation.
The information contained in a gene’s DNA is transferred to a related molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the cell nucleus during transcription. While both RNA and DNA are made up of a chain of nucleotides, their chemical properties are slightly different. Since it carries the information, or message, from the DNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm, messenger RNA (mRNA) is the type of RNA that contains the information for producing a protein.
The cytoplasm is where translation, the second stage in the process of turning a gene into a protein, takes place. The mRNA interacts with a complex called a ribosome, which “reads” the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA. A codon is a three-nucleotide sequence that normally codes for a single amino acid. (Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are the building blocks.) Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA that assembles the protein one amino acid at a time. The ribosome proceeds to assemble proteins until it comes across a “stop” codon (a sequence of three nucleotides that does not code for an amino acid).
Unlike conventional pharmaceuticals, mRNA drugs are not small molecules. They aren’t conventional biologics (recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies), which were the biotech industry’s beginnings. mRNA drugs, on the other hand, are instructions. And these instructions tell the body’s cells to produce proteins that will help prevent or treat disease.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic instructions needed by your body’s cells to produce proteins. Proteins, on the other hand, are the body’s “workhorses.” One or more proteins perform nearly every role in the human body, both natural and disease-related.
Your genetic code would never be used by your body if it weren’t for mRNA.
Proteins would be impossible to produce.
And the body will be unable to carry out its functions. Messenger ribonucleic acid, or mRNA, is an essential component of human biology, especially in the process of protein synthesis. mRNA is a single-stranded molecule that transports genetic code from the nucleus of a cell to the cell’s protein-making machinery, ribosomes.