What measure did peter the great take to westernize his court?
Someone who believes in divine rule believes that god
Anna Ioannovna (Russian: нна оанновна; 7 February [O.S. 28 January] 1693 – 28 October [O.S. 17 October] 1740), also known as Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was the regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and then Empress regnant of Russia from 1730 to 1740. Many of her decisions were characterized or heavily influenced by her uncle, Peter the Great (r. 1682–1725), such as the lavish building projects in St. Petersburg, supporting the Russian Academy of Science, and initiatives that benefited the aristocracy in general, such as the abolition of a primogeniture law in 1730. Anna’s reign was historically viewed[by whom?] in the West as a continuation of Peter the Great’s shift from the old Muscovy ways to the European court dreamed by him.  Anna’s reign is often referred to as a “dark age” in Russia.  Anna was the daughter of Tsar Ivan V and his wife Praskovia Saltykova and was born in Moscow. Ivan V co-ruled Russia with his younger half-brother Peter the Great, but he was mentally ill and incapable of running the country, so Peter effectively ruled alone. Anna’s half-uncle, Ivan V, died in February 1696, when she was just three years old, and her half-brother became Russia’s supreme emperor. [requires citation]
What resulted from louis xiv’s constant pursuit of warfare?
Emperor Peter I (1672-1725) of Russia was one of the European rulers inspired by Enlightenment ideals. He was in charge of a number of decrees aimed at modernizing and westernizing Russia.
Fascinated by economically stable countries and nations, he vowed to introduce a series of changes to turn his country into one of the most democratic models of the time. This transition, on the other hand, would agitate the Russian people, whose customs were about to change drastically.
Peter began his reformation era by forcing all of his boyars to shave their beards after overcoming the Streltsy. Then, with the exception of the clergy, he applied the same rule to all the men in the kingom (Decree on Shaving, 1705). The king imposed a daily fee of 100 rubles on anyone who refused. He also agreed on the clothing that the Russian citizens and nobility would wear (Decree on Western Styles, 1701), using the French, Saxon, or German fashion; those who failed to comply were fined 5,000 rubles. People protested that the new clothing trend was inappropriate for Russia’s harsh weather.
The greatest accomplishment of philip ii of spain was to
1Russian historians have recently filled in many of the gaps in Russian historiography. The years in the eighteenth century between the death of Peter the Great and the beginning of Catherine the Great’s reign are one of the chronological gaps. The decade and a half following Peter’s death was crucial because it saw the consolidation of his work as well as the failure of almost all attempts to revise it. Nikolai Petrukhintsev’s magnificent 1730s report, which is encyclopedic in nature, goes a long way toward filling this void. It is a foundational work that will necessitate a great deal of reflection and debate before it can be fully integrated into our understanding of Russia in the eighteenth century.
The rule of Anna Ioannovna, Peter’s niece, has been studied primarily for the Supreme Privy Council’s failed attempt in 1730 to create an oligarchy in place of autocracy. The attempt became a classic topic for pre-revolutionary liberal historians and their critics, resulting in an anachronistic narrative that attempted to incorporate the conflict with later ideas of constitutional government. This mindset persisted in the West for the rest of the twentieth century. In recent years, authors such as Petrukhintsev and I.V. Kurukin have shed new light on the events of 1730, as well as the entire decade. Kurukin has contributed a new and much more compelling account of those events, while Petrukhintsev has focused on the decade that followed, mainly the army and navy’s past. 1 He has now created a definitive tale of the key features of Empress Anna’s and her government’s “domestic policy,” building on his earlier work. As he explains, what he means by that isn’t a new, written, and well-thought-out program, but a set of integrated steps that the ruling elite probably didn’t recognize as a scheme (96).
What did french aristocrats do in an effort to keep their privileges?
After the Muscovites invaded Novgorod in 1471 and Lithuania refused to help, Novgorod was forced to accept the Korostyn’ Treaty, which reduced the city’s independence even further. Because of what happened to his father, Ivan III was still wary of uprisings and deported many Novgorod residents. He also replaced the Novgorodian church’s representatives with Russian Orthodox clergy. In exchange for military service, natives’ lands were stripped from them and given to cavalrymen. He implemented the pomestie scheme, a land management reform, into Muscovite after developing it there. By capturing the estates of local nobles, known as boyars, and giving them to his army, he was able to strengthen and centralize his control while still instilling loyalty in his army and other servants. Novgorod was a shell of its former self by 1489, and it was now a part of the expanding Russian state.
In 1552, Czar Ivan IV the Terrible launched an expedition against the Khanate of Kazan, which was located east of Nizhny-Novgorod and served as a Volga blockade. The walls of the Tatar city were breached by heavy bombard weapons, and the city was quickly overrun and annexed. Czar Ivan IV the Terrible launched a new expedition against the Khanate of Astrakhan, southward down the Volga, in 1556, four years after his victory against Kazan. With the capture of Astrakhan, Russia gained control of the entire Volga basin and gained access to the Caspian Sea. To ensure proper control, cities like Samara (1586), Saratov (1590), and Tsaritsyne (1589) were established along the river.