What is the fundamental problem of economics
The basic economic problem
A store manager’s resources are minimal, and he has a limited budget to spend on different wants. He could use his money to hire more people, purchase more stock from a wholesaler, advertise his product to increase demand, decorate or improve his shop, and pay for basic services like water and electricity. In essence, he has an infinite number of desires but a finite number of resources. His resources, we claim, are limited. The store manager must save money by prioritizing some interests, such as marketing, over others, such as stock acquisition. As previously mentioned, economics is the analysis of how these resources are distributed to better fulfill the infinite wants.
Since society’s needs and wants are limitless, but the resources available to meet them are restricted, every economy in the world faces three basic economic problems. This is a situation that all countries face, whether they are affluent or impoverished. The following are the key economic issues:
Scarcity and the fundamental economic problem
Every society is confronted with the economic problem of maximizing the use of minimal, or scarce, resources. The economic problem exists because, while people’s needs and desires are infinite, the resources available to fulfill those needs and desires are finite.
In economics, preference and opportunity cost are two basic principles. Given the scarcity of capital, producers and consumers must choose between competing options. Individuals must decide how to best use their talent and effort, businesses must decide how to best use their employees and machinery, and governments must decide how to best spend taxpayer money.
Making an economic decision necessitates a sacrifice since other options must be foregone. When you make a decision, you lose the advantage that an option would have offered. For example, if a person has £10 to spend and books cost £10 each and downloaded music tracks cost £1 each, purchasing a book means foregoing the value of the 10 downloaded tracks. Similarly, the land and other resources used to construct a school may have been used to construct a factory. The true sacrifice is the lack of the next best option, which is referred to as opportunity cost. The factory and what could have been generated are the opportunity costs of selecting the school.
The fundamental economic problem
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Basic economic problems: capital, land, labor, enterprise
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Economic systems approach these concerns in a number of ways:
“… by instinct and custom; by command and centralized control (in planned economies); and by command and centralized control (in mixed economies).
 that “…allocates products and services based on both market signals and government directives.”
 This is known as an economic system that combines elements of a market economy with elements of a planned economy, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise, among other things…”
In Economics, a “canonical textbook” of mainstream economic thought, Samuelson wrote.
 that “in a mixed private business environment, the price process, operating through supply and demand in competitive markets, operates to (simultaneously) address the three fundamental problems…”
 In a competitive equilibrium, the societal value placed on a good is equal to the value of the capital sacrificed to produce it (marginal benefit equals marginal cost). This ensures allocative productivity, which means that the additional value society puts on another unit of the good is equal to the resources society would sacrifice to create it. [number six]