What event led the truman administration to expand the containment doctrine to include asia?
Was containment successful
The Cold War began after World War II, when the United States and its allies faced off against the Soviet Union and its satellite states in a decades-long fight for dominance. During the Cold War, neither the Soviet Union nor the United States engaged in direct combat. However, diplomatic maneuvering, military coalitions, espionage, propaganda, weapons buildups, economic assistance, and proxy wars between other nations held the two superpowers at odds.
During World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States fought as allies against Nazi Germany. However, as soon as the war in Europe ended in May 1945, the coalition started to fall apart. Tensions were visible in July at the Potsdam Conference, where the victorious Allies discussed the occupation of Germany as a joint occupation.
The Soviet Union was adamant about establishing a buffer zone between itself and Western Europe. In Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Albania, and, finally, East Germany, it installed pro-communist regimes.
How successful was the policy of containment during the cold war
During his nearly eight years in office, President Harry S. Truman faced unparalleled foreign threats. Truman led the United States to the end of World War II, the start of the Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union, and the birth of the nuclear era. Truman backed the establishment of the state of Israel in the Middle East and participated with American troops in the war between North and South Korea. In summary, Truman’s foreign policy defined some of the fundamental values and promises that shaped American foreign policy for the rest of the century.
Truman inherited Roosevelt’s national security staff, though he would overhaul it during his administration, both in terms of personnel and organization. Truman replaced FDR’s last secretary of state, Edward Stettinius, with James F. Byrnes, a former congressman, Supreme Court justice, and war mobilization director. Byrnes was in charge of the first round of talks at the postwar conferences of allied foreign ministers, but he was a headache for President Truman. In 1947, Truman replaced him with Gen. George C. Marshall, the wartime Army chief of staff who had tried to mediate the Chinese civil war in 1946. In 1949, Marshall was replaced by Dean G. Acheson, a former undersecretary of state. Marshall and Acheson were visionary figures and talented architects of American foreign policy.
While the end of World War II brought most Americans stability and prosperity, it also increased tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States. Fearing that the Soviet Union would “export” communism to other countries, America focused its foreign policy on “containing” communism at home and abroad. While the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and Berlin Airlift indicated that the US was particularly concerned about the spread of communism in Europe, America’s containment policy applied to Asia as well. The Korean War was the first major battle fought in the name of containment, and it took place in Asia.
In 1950, the Korean Peninsula was split between a government supported by the Soviet Union in the north and a government backed by the United States in the south. At the conclusion of World War II, Korea was divided into two halves. Korea, which had been under Japanese rule since 1910, was invaded by the Soviet Union in August of 1945. Fearing that the Soviets would attempt to capture the entire peninsula from their northern position, the US rapidly deployed its own troops to the south. In the north, Japanese troops surrendered to the Russians, while in the south, they surrendered to the Americans. The United States and the Soviet Union decided to divide Korea temporarily along the 38th parallel, a latitudinal line that bisected the region, in order to avoid making a long-term decision about the country’s future. After 1946, when Kim Il Sung formed a communist government in the north, the Democratic People’s Republic, this line became more rigid. Syngman Rhee, a nationalist exile, returned to Korea shortly after and formed a rival government in the south, the Republic of Korea (ROK). Each government hoped to bring the country back under its control.
The United States pursues a geopolitical strategic foreign policy. It’s similar to the word cordon sanitaire, which was later used to describe the Soviet Union’s geopolitical containment in the 1940s. The “containment” strategy is best regarded as a Cold War foreign policy used by the United States and its allies to avoid the spread of communism after WWII.
This strategy was a reaction to the Soviet Union’s efforts to expand communist hegemony in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America during the Cold War. Containment was a middle ground between detente (relaxed relations) and rollback (resumption of hostilities) (actively replacing a regime).
The doctrine’s foundation was laid out in a 1946 cable by US diplomat George F. Kennan during President Harry S. Truman’s post-World War II term. The term was coined by Kennan in a 1947 report to US Defense Secretary James Forrestal, which was later used in a magazine article as a summary of US foreign policy.