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Using the key choices identify the bones indicated by the following descriptions

Using the key choices, identify the bone names or markings according to the descriptions that follow

Bones have a wide range of surface characteristics, depending on their role and position in the body. The bone markings, which are depicted in Figure 7.2, are described in Table 7.2. (Figure 7.2.1). Bone marks are divided into three categories: articulations, projections, and holes. An articulation is the meeting of two bone surfaces (articulus = “joint”), as the name suggests. To aid articulation work, these surfaces tend to conform to one another, such as one being rounded and the other cupped. A projection is a portion of a bone that extends above its surface. Tendon and ligament attachment points are located here. In general, their size and shape is an indicator of the forces exerted through the attachment to the bone. A hole is an opening or groove in the bone that enables blood vessels and nerves to penetrate the bone. Their size and shape, like the other marks, correspond to the size of the vessels and nerves that enter the bone at these locations.

Five descriptions of bone structure are provided in column a

The skeletal system is required to support the body, protect internal organs, and enable an organism to move. These functions are fulfilled by three separate skeleton designs: hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, and endoskeleton.
A hydrostatic skeleton is one that is created by the coelom, a fluid-filled compartment within the body. The aqueous fluid that supports the organs of the coelom also prevents external compression. Because of the fluid, this compartment is under hydrostatic pressure and protects the organism’s other organs. Soft-bodied animals including sea anemones, earthworms, Cnidaria, and other invertebrates have this sort of skeletal system.
Muscles that surround the coelom provide movement in a hydrostatic skeleton. A hydrostatic skeleton’s muscles contract to adjust the shape of the coelom, while the fluid pressure in the coelom causes movement. Earthworms, for example, travel through peristalsis, which is a series of muscular contractions of the skeletal muscle of the body wall hydrostatic skeleton that alternately shorten and lengthen the body. The anterior end of the organism is extended by lengthening the body. The majority of species have a system for anchoring themselves in their environment. The posterior portion of the body is then drawn forward by shortening the muscles. While a hydrostatic skeleton is ideal for invertebrates including earthworms and some aquatic species, it is ineffective for terrestrial animals.

Identify the bone indicated in the figure

The study of human bone, according to forensic anthropologists, opens a window of scientific reality that allows the justice system to uncover the evidence and circumstances underlying criminal acts. Forensic anthropologists are primary players in forensic science both in the field and in the laboratory, with training in anatomy, archaeology, human osteology, and chain-of-evidence procedures.
The systematic recovery and collection of physical evidence in the field, thorough scientific research in the laboratory, and preservation of the evidence’s integrity may all play a role in the outcome of civil or criminal trials. Physical evidence, including human skeletal remains, is typically collected and analyzed by federal, state, and county evidence response teams. However, forensic anthropologists are also called upon by such organizations to assist with this effort. As a result, forensic anthropologists have examined the bodies of murder victims, unnatural accidents, natural deaths, and mass casualties.

Group each of the following bones into one of the four major bone categories

The viscerocranium or facial bones protects the soft tissue of the face. The viscerocranium is made up of 14 separate bones that have fused together. The hyoid, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones, on the other hand, are also found in the viscerocranium.
The frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, and inferior nasal conchae articulate with the two lacrimal bones, which form the orbit’s medial wall. The two smallest bones in the face are the lacrimal bones.
The frontal, ethmoid, and maxilla bones articulate with the two slender nasal bones in the midline of the face to form the bridge of the noise. Inside the nasal cavity are the inferior nasal conchae. Their primary role is to increase the surface area of the nasal cavity, which increases the amount of air that contacts the mucous membranes and cilia of the nose, filtering, warming, and humidifying the air until it enters the lungs. The nasal septum is formed by the small vomer bone, which is located at the base of the nasal cavity.