The goldsmiths ability to create money was based on the fact that
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The most popular form of banking practiced by commercial banks around the world is fractional-reserve banking.  entails banks taking deposits from investors and making loans to borrowers by only keeping a portion of their deposit liabilities in reserve. [three] Bank reserves are stored in the form of cash in the bank or balances in the bank’s central bank account. The “reserve requirement” or “reserve ratio,” which is determined by the country’s central bank, is the minimum amount of liquid assets that banks must hold. Banks usually maintain more than the bare minimum, retaining surplus capital. [requires citation]
Bank deposits are usually for a short period of time, while bank loans are typically for a longer period of time.
 – this necessitates banks holding deposits in order to provide liquidity as depositors withdraw funds. Banks hold only a fraction of their liabilities as reserves because they expect only a fraction (or ‘fraction’) of depositors to withdraw funds at the same time. As a result, they can encounter an unanticipated bank run if depositors request withdrawals in excess of the bank’s reserves. In that case, the bank experiencing the liquidity shortage may borrow from other banks in the interbank lending market; or, if there is a general lack of liquidity among banks, the country’s central bank can act as lender of last resort and provide funds to banks to cover the short-term shortfall. [three] [verify with a quotation] (5) [verify with a quotation]
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Although central banks are usually in charge of controlling vast amounts of money, the actual process of money formation takes place in depository institutions, primarily commercial banks. A borrower’s pledge to repay is “monetized” (converted to currency or checkbook money) by banks. Let’s say you want to buy a car and you ask the bank for a loan. The bank generates an entry in your account after the loan is accepted, against which you can write a personal check to pay for your new vehicle. When you apply for a loan, you sign a contract that effectively serves as an IOU, forcing you to make payments before the loan is entirely repaid. Governments, too, use their central bank facilities to generate liquidity in the form of debt. The truth is that most new money is generated as debt, whether by governments or private depository institutions.
Governments impose rules known as “fractional reserve conditions” to restrict the production of new capital. Banks may raise their assets without these conditions by simply raising loans and deposits, as long as they keep enough currency on hand to redeem whatever sums depositors want to turn into currency (which is always presumed to be less than the total demand deposits in the bank). Loans are the responsibility of the borrower, but the asset of the lending entity.
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The traditional origin story for fractional reserve banking revolves around ancient goldsmiths. People came to goldsmiths to store precious metals on their account, and they kept precious metals in their vaults. And, over time, the goldsmiths discovered that if they borrowed the gold out and placed it in the community as an investment, they could make a profit and return the gold to the vault before anyone noticed.
Is that how banking got started? No, I don’t believe so. The story will not be supported by history, in my opinion. But it’s a useful story because it tells us that resources sitting idle in a vault aren’t of any benefit to the society, and that if you can put those resources to use for productive investment, you can make a profit while also enriching the community.
So, why is it important to understand fractional reserve banking? I don’t think economists fully understand why certain countries develop faster than others, but one thing that appears to be obvious is that countries that have a conducive climate for investment do significantly better than those that do not. And we may consider the climate in a broad sense. We should recognize laws that safeguard property rights. W should consider investment profits being taxed at a low rate. Value countries that accept free trade agreements. Both of these aspects are beneficial to capital accumulation and investment. We may also understand it in terms of particular markets and institutions that assist in the conversion of capital into investment.
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The risk of default rises as more people withdraw their savings, causing more people to withdraw their deposits. The bank’s reserves may not be adequate to cover the withdrawals in serious cases.
When a large number of people begin withdrawing money from banks out of fear that the institutions will run out of money, a bank run occurs. Rather than actual insolvency, a bank run is usually the product of panic. A textbook example of a self-fulfilling prophecy is a bank run caused by fear that drives a bank into actual insolvency. Individuals continue to withdraw money, putting the bank at risk of default. As a consequence, what starts out as fear can easily escalate into a true default situation.