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- Leda cosmides part 1: basic concepts of evolutionary
Evolutionary psychology (EP) is inextricably related to evolution. According to evolutionary psychologist Glenn Geher’s statement in a recent Psychology Today editorial. Accepting evolution on the one side and dismissing evolutionary psychology on the other, as Geher points out, seems to be a disconnect. It’s the kind of 180-degree turn that seems to require a certain amount of cognitive dissonance. This inconsistency is likely to be politically or ideologically motivated for many – particularly in the humanities and social sciences. Many people reject the concept that human behavior is biologically determined because they are dissatisfied with the type of late 19th and early 20th century typological thought that led to classist and racist social agendas – often crudely explained by a sloppy invocation of Darwinian theories.
This is unusual for many reasons. For one thing, it seems to necessitate either rejecting all Darwinian accounts of behavior or making a vaguely vitalistic claim that human behavior is shaped by forces distinct from those that form the behavior of other species. The issue is that the differences between humans and our animal relatives are often differences in degree rather than type. As a consequence, deciding the point at which an organism ceases to be controlled by fitness-enhancing imperatives is a matter of judgment.
The aim of evolutionary psychology research is to discover and comprehend the human mind’s nature. Evolutionary psychology is a field of psychology in which evolutionary biology knowledge and concepts are applied to research on the structure of the human mind. It’s not a subject like vision, thinking, or social actions that can be observed. It’s a way of thinking about psychology that can be generalized to any topic within the discipline.
The mind, in this view, is a set of information-processing machines that evolved naturally to solve adaptive problems faced by our hunter-gatherer forefathers. This way of thinking about the brain, mind, and actions is changing the way scientists approach old and new topics. This chapter serves as a primer on the ideas and claims that guide the rest of the novel.
After presenting the theory of evolution through natural selection in the final pages of The Origin of Species, Darwin made a bold prediction: “I see open fields for much more critical studies in the near future. Psychology will be founded on a new basis, one that involves the incremental acquisition of each mental strength and ability.” Thirty years later, in his landmark book Principles of Psychology, one of the pioneering works of experimental psychology, William James sought to do exactly that (James, 1890). James spoke a lot about “instincts” in Principles. This term applied to specialized neural circuits that are shared by all members of a species and are the product of that species’ evolutionary history. When these circuits are combined, they form what we term “human nature” in our own species.
John Tooby and Leda Cosmides coined the word “traditional social science model” (SSSM) in their edited volume The Adapted Mind, published in 1992.
 They referred to SSSM when addressing social science theories such as relativism, social constructionism, and cultural determinism. They assert that those philosophies, as encapsulated in SSSM, became the dominant theoretical framework in the growth of the social sciences in the twentieth century. The mind is a general-purpose cognitive system shaped almost entirely by history, according to their proposed SSSM paradigm. [two]
Tooby and Cosmides suggest that SSSM should be replaced with the integrated model (IM), also known as the integrated causal model (ICM), which incorporates cultural and biological theories for mental development. SSSM supporters include those who believe the word was coined as a way to argue for ICM in particular and evolutionary psychology (EP) in general. Some argue that the SSSM accusation is founded on a straw man or rhetorical tactic.
Leda cosmides part 1: basic concepts of evolutionary
The bulk of the methodological techniques used by social scientists are not special to the social sciences. Indeed, the facilities in the base and suggested sets, which are part of the regular R delivery, cover most statistical data analysis in the social sciences. I define base and recommended packages on the first mention in the package details below; packages that are not explicitly defined as “R-base” or “recommended” are contributed packages.
Other CRAN role views, such as the following, cover many of the approaches widely used in the social sciences, in addition to the foundation and contributed sets. I’ll try to keep the details in these other task views, which are described in alphabetical order, as clear as possible.
In addition to those covered extensively in the base and suggested packages, it is possible to fit a very wide variety of regression models using the facilities offered by contributed packages, and an even wider variety of models using contributed packages.