Rights based ethics emphasizes the
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Virtue ethics is a broad term for theories of moral philosophy that emphasize the importance of character and virtue rather than performing one’s duty or behaving in order to achieve good results. A virtue ethicist is likely to send you moral advice along these lines: “Act as a good person would in your case.”
Most virtue ethics theories are based on Aristotle’s definition of a virtuous individual as someone who possesses ideal character traits. These attributes stem from normal internal tendencies, but they must be nurtured in order to become stable. A virtuous person, for example, is someone who is kind in a variety of circumstances in their lives because it is in their nature, not because they want to maximize utility, win favors, or simply do their duty. In contrast to deontological and consequentialist theories, virtue ethics theories do not seek to define universal values that can be implemented in any moral situation. Furthermore, virtue ethics theories discuss broader problems such as “How do I live?” and “What is the good life?” “What are proper family and social values?” and “What are proper family and social values?”
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Normative ethics differs from meta-ethics in that the former studies the nature of moral language and the metaphysics of moral facts, while the latter studies the meaning of moral language and the metaphysics of moral facts. Similarly, normative ethics differs from applied ethics in that the former is more concerned with “who ought to be” rather than the ethics of a particular problem (e.g. if, or when, abortion is acceptable).
Normative ethics differs from descriptive ethics in that the latter is based on observational research into people’s moral values. Prescriptive ethics, as opposed to descriptive ethics, is often used to define normative ethics in this sense. Moral truth, on the other hand, are both descriptive and prescriptive in some interpretations of the meta-ethical interpretation of moral realism.
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We discussed the Utilitarian Approach to ethical decision-making last time. We’re looking at five theories in general that include ethical building blocks you can use in your classroom to debrief any ethical problem. Of course, any dilemma can be dissected from many viewpoints, and the end result or decision can vary depending on which direction is taken.
Respect for human dignity is at the heart of the Rights Approach. This perspective holds that our dignity is founded on our ability to choose how we live our lives freely, and that we have a fundamental right to be respected for our choices as free, fair, and reasonable individuals, as well as a moral obligation to honor others in the same way.
Any of these rights are enshrined in the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights, including the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; free speech and assembly; freedom of religion; property ownership; and the right to freely enter into contractual arrangements and obtain whatever was contractually agreed upon. Other rights might include the right to privacy, the right to be fully informed about issues that impact our decisions, and the right to be protected from harm and injury, among others. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations will help you develop a greater understanding of human rights.
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There are a variety of well-respected approaches to ethical problems. They’ve been around for decades in some cases. It’s important to understand that many people who think a lot about business and ethics have strong opinions about which viewpoint is the right. Others advocate addressing ethical questions from a number of viewpoints. We’ll look at utilitarianism, deontology, social justice and social contract theory, and virtue theory in this section. We’re overlooking some critical viewpoints, such as general theories of justice and “rights” and feminist ethics and patriarchy.
Utilitarianism is a philosophy based on the principle of utility.
The principle that the “right” moral act is the one that helps society the most. is a well-known ethical viewpoint, one that is well associated with economics and the free-market outlook that has come to dominate most modern corporate, management, and economics thought. Though John Stuart Mill (who wrote On Liberty and Utilitarianism) and others championed utilitarianism as a guide to what is nice, it is often credited to Jeremy Bentham. The emphasis of utilitarianism is on outcomes rather than law. If an action (or series of actions) maximizes satisfaction or enjoyment in society, it is usually considered good or right. The utilitarian outlook, which was originally meant as a guide for politicians tasked with achieving the highest good for society, can now be used by individuals and businesses alike.