Fertilization produces in the offspring:

Fertilization produces in the offspring:

How many different kinds of gamets could be produced

Figure (PageIndex1) depicts a self-portrait of an 18th-century artist and his family, which clearly demonstrates an important point. Children in a family mimic their parents and each other, but unless they are identical twins, they are never identical. Each of the painting’s daughters inherited a distinct collection of characteristics from their parents. You will understand how this occurs in this definition. It all starts with sex — specifically, sexual reproduction.
Why do you resemble but not look exactly like your parents? The first explanation is that you have two parents. The second reason is that it has to do with sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction creates genetically diverse individuals, while asexual reproduction produces genetically identical clones. The development of a new organism by combining the genetic material of two species is known as sexual reproduction. Since each parent contributes half of the genetic material for the new organism, the offspring will have characteristics of both parents, but will not be identical to either parent.

Study finds ‘old’ sperm produces healthier offspring

Karyogamy is the sexual fusion of haploid cells in fungi. Karyogamy results in the development of a diploid cell known as a zygote or zygospore. Depending on the species’ life cycle, this cell can then undergo meiosis or mitosis.
The zygote is formed in a chamber called the archegonium in land plants. The archegonium is flask-shaped in seedless plants, with a long hollow neck from which the sperm cell enters. The zygote divides and grows within the archegonium as it divides and grows.
A released ovum (a haploid secondary oocyte with replication chromosome copies) and a haploid sperm cell (male gamete) combine to form a single 2n diploid cell called the zygote during human fertilization. When a single sperm reaches an oocyte, it completes the second meiosis division, resulting in a haploid daughter with just 23 chromosomes, almost all of the cytoplasm, and the sperm in its own pronucleus. The second polar body, which has only chromosomes but no ability to reproduce or survive, is the other product of meiosis. DNA is then repeated in the two different pronuclei produced from the sperm and ovum in the fertilized daughter, briefly rendering the zygote’s chromosome number 4n diploid. A fusion of the pronuclei and immediate mitotic division create two 2n diploid daughter cells called blastomeres about 30 hours after fertilization. [two]

What is the process involved in asexual

Fertilization is more of a series of events than a single occurrence. In reality, any break in the chain would almost certainly result in fertilization failure. The chain starts with a set of changes that affect sperm, preparing them for the challenge ahead.
Effective fertilization necessitates not only the fusion of a sperm and an egg, but also the fusion of only one sperm with the egg. Polyspermy, or fertilization by more than one sperm, almost always results in early embryonic death. Links have formed at the end of the chain to effectively avoid polyspermy.
Fertilization is unlikely or difficult for freshly ejaculated sperm. Instead, they must first go through a series of changes known as capacitation. Capacitation is related to the elimination of adherent seminal plasma proteins as well as lipid and protein reorganization in the plasma membrane. It also appears to include an increase in cyclic AMP and a decrease in intracellular pH, as well as an influx of extracellular calcium. Capacitation tends to differ slightly between organisms in terms of molecular specifics.


In frogs, Spallanzani discovered that the female ovum and male sperm would interact to form a zygote in 1784.

What is asexual reproduction | genetics | biology

[4] In 1827, von Baer made the first observation of a therian mammalian egg.

Master plant reproduction in 10 mins | pollination

[3] In Germany, Oscar Hertwig (1876) identified the fusion of spermatozoa and ova from sea urchins.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants | #aumsum #kids

[number four]
Fertilisation and meiosis are both parts of sexual reproduction that originated in eukaryotes, so their evolution is related. The origins of the couple meiosis–fertilisation are the subject of two competing theories. One theory is that it arose from prokaryotic sex (bacterial recombination), just as eukaryotes did. [requires citation] The other is that meiosis evolved from mitosis. (5)
The sperm (male) and egg (female) cells are the gametes involved in plant fertilization. The gametes formed by male and female gametophytes come together and are fertilized in different ways in different plant families. Fertilization of the sperm and egg takes place within the archegonium in Bryophyte land plants. The male gametophyte in seed plants is known as a pollen grain. The pollen grain germinates after pollination, and a pollen tube develops and penetrates the ovule through a micropyle, a tiny pore. The pollen tube transports the sperm from the pollen to the ovule, where the egg is fertilized. Two sperm cells are released from the pollen grain in flowering plants, followed by a second fertilization event involving the second sperm cell and the ovule’s central cell, which is a second female gamete.