Explain how chloroplast structure relates to its function
Structure of the chloroplast
Chloroplasts are plant cell organelles that use the photosynthetic process to transform light energy into relatively stable chemical energy. They are preserving life on Earth by doing so. Chloroplasts also perform a variety of metabolic functions for plant cells, such as fatty acid synthesis, membrane lipid synthesis, and…
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Specialized cells: significance and examples
The stroma surrounds the grana, allowing the products of the light-dependent reaction (which occurs through the grana’s thylakoid membrane) to easily move into the stroma for the light-independent reaction.
Chlorophyll is a pigment composed of a long hydrocarbon chain and a porphyrin group containing a magnesium atom in the middle. The primary pigment reaction centre is located at the heart of the photosystems and is known as chlorophyll a (and b). Each absorbs red light at a wavelength that is slightly different.
Accessory pigments lack a porphyrin group and are thus excluded from the light-dependent reaction. They absorb light wavelengths that chlorophylls don’t absorb well and transfer the energy to chlorophyll an at the photosystem’s foundation. Carotenoids absorb blue light while reflecting yellow and orange light. The primary carotenoid pigments are carotene and xanthophyll.
Chloroplasts – structure
Chloroplasts (/klrplsts, -plsts/) are a form of chloroplast.
Chloroplast structure and function
 are organelles in plant and algal cells that perform photosynthesis, in which the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures energy from sunlight, converts it, and stores it in the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH thus releasing oxygen from water. In a process known as the Calvin cycle, they then use ATP and NADPH to create organic molecules from carbon dioxide. Fatty acid synthesis, most amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants are only a few of the functions carried out by chloroplasts. In unicellular algae, the number of chloroplasts per cell ranges from one to 100 in plants like Arabidopsis and wheat.
A chloroplast is a type of plastid organelle distinguished by its two membranes and high chlorophyll concentration. Other forms of plastids, such as the leucoplast and chromoplast, have little chlorophyll and do not perform photosynthesis.
Chloroplasts are extremely mobile, moving around and circling inside plant cells, and pinching in half to replicate. Environmental variables such as light color and intensity have a significant impact on their behaviour. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have their own DNA, which is believed to have been passed down from their ancestor—a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. [three] Plant cells cannot make chloroplasts, so each daughter cell must inherit them during cell division.
Functions of chloroplasts and chlorophyll
Photosynthesis is mainly carried out in leaves, which are made up of several layers of cells with distinct top and bottom sides. Photosynthesis takes place in a middle layer of the leaf called the mesophyll, rather than on the leaf’s surface layers (Figure 1).
Photosynthesis occurs in eukaryotes within a chloroplast, a type of organelle. While some prokaryotes can conduct photosynthesis, they lack chloroplasts (or other membrane-bound organelles). Chloroplast-containing cells can be found in the mesophyll of plants. A double membrane covers chloroplasts, similar to the double membrane found within a mitochondrion. A third membrane exists inside the chloroplast and forms thylakoids, which are stacked disc-shaped structures. Chlorophyll molecules are embedded in the thylakoid membrane, a pigment (a molecule that absorbs light) that initiates the photosynthesis process. Chlorophyll is the pigment that gives plants their green hue. The thylakoid membrane encloses the thylakoid lumen or void, which is an internal space. Other pigments play a role in photosynthesis as well, but chlorophyll is the most significant. A granum is a stack of thylakoids, and the area surrounding the granum is called stroma, as shown in Figure 3. (not to be confused with stomata, the openings on the leaves).