Evaluating the quality of information ideas and arguments presented by a speaker is
- Evaluating the quality of information ideas and arguments presented by a speaker is
- What must balance the right to free speech?
- What does research suggest about good listeners
- Avoiding information overload requires a speaker to be a good researcher of information
- The methods and criteria used to evaluate a speech are the process of __________.
What must balance the right to free speech?
A desire to search, patience to doubt, fondness to meditate, slowness to assert, readiness to consider, carefulness to dispose and put in order; and contempt for all forms of imposture are all characteristics of critical thought. —philosopher Francis Bacon
You have the responsibility of engaging and expanding your thinking skills as a college student. Critical thinking is one of the most important of these skills because it applies to almost all activities, circumstances, subjects, jobs, cultures, obstacles, and opportunities. It is a “domain-general” thought capacity, rather than one that is unique to a subject field.
Critical thinking is a type of reasoning that is based on determining what to believe or do. It is straightforward, rational, and reflective. It entails asking probing questions such as, “How do we know?” and “Is this valid in every case or only in this case?” It entails being cynical and questioning conclusions rather than memorizing facts or believing what you hear or read at face value.
Consider the following scenario: you’re reading a history textbook. Because you sense those prejudices in the prose, you wonder who wrote it and why. You discover that the author’s study is small, focusing solely on a subset of a population. Your critical reasoning shows that there are “other sides to the story” in this situation.
What does research suggest about good listeners
Never undervalue the importance of effective communication. It has the potential to help you land the job of your dreams, encourage investors to back your idea, or raise your status within your business. Although there are many good speakers in the world, you can stand out by being the one who can consistently produce something amazing. Here are some pointers for business people who want to improve their speaking skills: Don’t underestimate the strength of your voice (raise and lower it for emphasis); give your audience something extra (unexpected moments will catch their attention); and rehearse (the best speakers are the best because they practice — a lot).
I was sitting across the table from a Silicon Valley CEO who had invented a technology that affects all of our lives: flash memory, which is used in smartphones, digital cameras, and computers to store data. Before we met, he was a regular on CNBC and had been giving business presentations for at least 20 years. Despite this, the CEO desired to improve his public speaking abilities.
Avoiding information overload requires a speaker to be a good researcher of information
Persuasion’s elaboration probability model (ELM) is a dual process theory that describes how people’s attitudes change. Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo developed the ELM in 1980. [two] The model attempts to describe various types of stimuli processing, why they’re used, and how they affect attitude change. The ELM suggests two main persuasion paths: the central and peripheral routes.
As seen in the illustration, an individual is contemplating purchasing a car and is convinced by a friend to purchase a specific model. If he uses the central route to process his friend’s message, he will carefully analyze his friend’s argument and rationally consider the cost, reliability, and fuel efficiency of this model. The ELM predicts that if he produces positive thinking along the central path, he will embrace the message and the outcome will be permanent. If, on the other hand, he processes the message along the peripheral path, he is more likely to buy the car simply because he likes the color or because a popular idol on television “asks” him to buy it. Thoughts generated by the peripheral route would be relatively short-lived in comparison to those generated by the central route.
The methods and criteria used to evaluate a speech are the process of __________.
What strengthens and weakens an argument should be a problem for persuasive speakers. We spoke about how arguments and proof are used to make a case, and how warrants are the underlying justifications that tie the two together. We also spoke about how important it is to assess the validity of a warrant since strong warrants are typically more convincing. Knowing various forms of logic will aid you in putting statements and proof together in convincing ways, as well as evaluating the quality of arguments you come across. Being able to recognize popular logical fallacies will also help you be a more critical user of persuasive messages.
The act of making sense of the world around us is referred to as reasoning. We must use logic to explain our experiences, draw conclusions from data, and propose new ideas. We sometimes reason without realizing it, but understanding how we think will help us become better communicative message producers and users. Inductive, deductive, and causal reasoning are the three forms of reasoning we’ll look at.