Difference between p type and n type semiconductors
- Difference between p type and n type semiconductors
- P-type, n-type semiconductors and p-n junction concept for
- Classification of semiconductors (intrinsic/extrinsic, p-type/n
- Semiconductors, insulators & conductors, basic introduction
- C.8 n-type and p-type semiconductors (hl)
- Difference between p type and n type semiconductors, unit 9
P-type, n-type semiconductors and p-n junction concept for
The key distinction between P-type and N-type semiconductors is that an n-type semiconductor has more negatively charged carriers than a P-type semiconductor. In a p-type semiconductor, there are more positively charged carriers than electrons (holes, which can be thought of as the absence of an electron).
With the support of four of its five electrons, each antimony atom forms covalent bonds with the four germanium atoms that surround it. The fifth atom, which contains the electron, is unnecessary and is only loosely bound to the antimony atom. As a result, by applying an electric field or increasing its thermal energy, it can easily transition from the valence band to the conduction band.
As a consequence, almost every antimony atom added to the germanium lattice contributes one conduction electron without causing a positive hole. Antimony is a donor impurity that transforms pure germanium into an extrinsic N-type (N for negative) semiconductor with a negative charge carrier.
As a consequence, the concentration of electrons in the conduction band increases and surpasses that of holes in the valence band. As a consequence, the Fermi level increases, reaching the bottom of the conduction band.
Classification of semiconductors (intrinsic/extrinsic, p-type/n
Two neighboring bits of p-type and n-type semiconducting materials make up p-n junction diodes. P-type and n-type materials are essentially semiconductors with atomic impurities, such as silicon (Si) or germanium (Ge); the type of impurity defines the semiconductor type. Doping is the deliberate addition of impurities to materials; semiconductors with impurities are referred to as “doped semiconductors.”
Each nucleus uses its four valence electrons to form four covalent bonds with its neighbors in a pure (intrinsic) Si or Ge semiconductor (see figure below). The nucleus and non-valent electrons in each ionic core have a net charge of +4 and are surrounded by 4 valence electrons. There are no extra electrons or holes, so The number of electrons and holes present at any given time will always be the same in this situation.
The electron-hole balance would be altered if one of the atoms in the semiconductor lattice is replaced by an element with three valence electrons, such as Boron (B) or Gallium (Ga). Since this impurity can only contribute three valence electrons to the lattice, there will be one extra hole (see figure below). A Group 3 impurity is also known as an acceptor because holes can “accept” free electrons.
Semiconductors, insulators & conductors, basic introduction
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C.8 n-type and p-type semiconductors (hl)
In terms of purity, semiconductors can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic groups. Extrinsic semiconductors include both P-type and N-type semiconductors. So, what’s the difference between the two?
All of this, however, can be modified by doping silicon, which is how p- and n-type semiconductors are made. Understanding the differences between p- and n-type semiconductors Doping is a method in which impurities are deliberately introduced into an intrinsic semiconductor, such as silicon. It entails a chemical reaction that causes impurities in the crystal to form ionic bonds with silicon atoms.
Difference between p type and n type semiconductors, unit 9
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, meaning that during the manufacturing of the semiconductor crystal, a trace element or chemical known as a doping agent has been chemically inserted into the crystal to give it different electrical properties than a pure semiconductor crystal, which is known as an intrinsic semiconductor. These foreign dopant atoms in the crystal lattice in an extrinsic semiconductor are primarily responsible for providing charge carriers that bring electric current through the crystal. There are two types of doping agents used, resulting in two types of extrinsic semiconductors. When an electron donor dopant is introduced into a crystal, it releases a mobile conduction electron into the lattice. An n-type semiconductor is an extrinsic semiconductor that has been doped with electron donor atoms since the majority of charge carriers in the crystal are negative electrons. An electron acceptor dopant is an atom that absorbs an electron from the lattice, producing a void in the crystal where an electron could be called a hole and can pass through it like a positively charged particle. Since the majority of charge carriers in the crystal are positive holes, an extrinsic semiconductor that has been doped with electron acceptor atoms is referred to as a p-type semiconductor.