Compare the purpose and characteristics of satire in popes
Satire, print shops and comic illustration in 18th and 19th
Following an eleven-year Commonwealth period during which the country was ruled by Parliament under the direction of Puritan General Oliver Cromwell, the monarchy was restored when Charles II was restored to the throne of England. This political occurrence occurs at the same time as (and is partly responsible for) shifts in Britain’s literary, technological, and cultural life.
During this time, the importance of human reason was emphasized, as was an analytical theory that held that understanding of the world was gained through the senses and the application of reason to what we perceive through our senses. Reason was a constant, distinctly human quality that acted as a compass for man. As a consequence, this era is also known as the Age of Reason or Enlightenment. Observing human nature and nature itself, all of which were considered unchanging and constant, was a feature of this time.
The Neoclassical era is another name for this period. Original writings created by classical Greek and Roman literature were highly regarded by writers at the time. Classical influences were prevalent in poetry, with the use of rhyming, and in prose, with its satirical style, as in the era of Caesar Augustus, with authors such as Horace and Virgil, with classical influences appearing prevalent in poetry with the use of rhyming and in prose with its satirical form. Classical literature was considered natural by the Augustans, and these works were idealized models for writing. Neoclassical “ideals of order, rationality, restraint, accuracy, ‘correctness,’ decorum,… will allow practitioners of various arts to imitate or replicate the structures or themes of Greek or Roman originals” (Victorian Web). “Learn hence for ancient rules a just esteem; to copy Nature is to copy them,” Alexander Pope continues (Essay on Criticism). Studying the ancients, as well as the styles and laws of classical literature, is a good way to learn about nature. The idea that reason was an unchanging and special human quality that served as a guide for man was closely associated with the importance put on the classics and the unchanging laws of nature.
Lecture 24: augustan poetry: pope, montagu, & leapor
Elizabethan authors, willing to pursue Classical models but fooled by a false etymology, thought the word satyre originated from the Greek satyr play: satyrs were notoriously rude, unmannerly creatures, it seemed reasonable that the word satyre should mean harsh, coarse, rough. The false etymology that derives satire from satyrs was finally revealed in the 17th century by Classical scholar Isaac Casaubon, but the old tradition has aesthetic if not etymological appropriateness and has remained solid, according to English author Joseph Hall.
More than a century later, Juvenal sees the satirist’s position in a different light. His most identifiable pose is that of an upright man, appalled by the corruptions of his day, his heart filled with rage and anger. What motivates him to write satire? Since tragedies and epics aren’t important to his generation. Viciousness and corruption pervade Roman life to such a degree that it is impossible for an honest writer not to write satire. When he looks around, his heart swells with rage; vice has never triumphed more. How can he be deafeningly quiet (Satires, I)? Juvenal’s declamatory style, as well as the amplification and luxuriousness of his invective, are completely at odds with Horace’s stylistic prescriptions. Juvenal flaunts his creativity at the end of the scabrous sixth satire, a long, perfervid invective against women: “In this poem, satire has gone beyond the limits set by his predecessors; it has taken to itself the exalted tone of tragedy,” he says.
E :-68 | literary characteristics of the age of pope | the
It’s difficult to say which is more successful when comparing the intent and characteristics of satire in Pope’s “The Rape of the Lock” and Swift’s “A Modest Proposal.” Both represent themes of class, race, and gender, but the writers used entirely different forms of satire, genres, logical styles, and motivation and motives. “The Rape of the Lock,” by Pope, is a sharply perceptive literary work that highlights social problems, current affairs, rich class ideals, and gender inequality. Pope portrays unequal power ties between men and women, depicting women as a man’s property:
Alexander Pope portrays society’s spiritual deterioration while simultaneously providing new perspectives and optimism for a better life and social order. The tone of Pope’s Horatian satire is gentle and humorous; it encourages and motivates in a gentle, soft way.
In contrast to Pope, Swift used his dark sense of humor and introduced a classical Latin style of satire (Juvenalian satire) in his “A Modest Proposal,” which is completely different from Pope’s Horatian satire. Swift’s shocking, outrageous style draws attention to social, economic, and public problems. Swift’s satirical tone is harsh and sarcastic, but at the same time, he provides rational solutions to social injustice and indifference (baby-eating to alleviate the poor class’s burden): “That the remaining hundred thousand may be offered in sale to the persons of quality and wealth, through the empire, always advising the mother to let them suck plentifu (Swift, 10).
Mac flecknoe by john dryden (ch_01)
Voltaire, along with Jonathan Swift, is regarded as one of the greatest satirists in literature, owing largely to Candide. Satire can be described as a literary technique for promoting the advancement of humanity and its institutions. The satirist takes a skeptical approach to his content and generally presents it with wit and humor. Aware of the serious weaknesses in the institutions that humanity has created, he may try to remodel them rather than demolish them through laughter. Voltaire is regarded as one of these satirists, and he called for a progressive transformation of human actions and institutions.
Voltaire’s primary goal in writing Candide was to disprove the theory of Optimism, and exaggeration was the most effective tool he had. He opposed gross absurdity with gross absurdity — Pangloss’s and his disciples’ doctrine versus the conclusions to be drawn from the fantastic experiences that are documented. Candide is pushed from what was “the best of all imaginable worlds” for him and others at the baron’s castle. The carnage of the Bulgar-Abar war, the tempest and earthquake, Cunégonde’s apparent death and the real death of her parents, the experiences of the Inquisition — all of these and other significant incidents are exaggerated.