c

Compare and contrast the information you can learn from looking at a pedigree

Compare and contrast the information you can learn from looking at a pedigree

Autosomal and x linked inheritance

An individual’s phenotype is determined by his or her genotype. Alleles passed down over the generations decide a person’s genotype (one from Mom and one from Dad). These alleles determine whether or not a trait is “dominant” or “recessive.” The location of alleles in the genome also determines whether a phenotype is “autosomal” or “X-linked.” When only one copy of an allele is needed for expression of a trait, it is said to be dominant. Traits are recessive if they require two copies of an allele to be expressed. X-linked traits are those that are controlled by an allele on the X chromosome, while autosomal traits are those that are controlled by alleles on any chromosome other than the X or Y. The expression of X-linked traits is influenced by a variety of factors, including whether the allele is dominant or recessive, as well as the gender of the offspring.
A Punnett square can be used to estimate the probability of creating a child with a specific trait. If two people know their genotype for a trait, they may use a Punnett square to imagine their offspring’s possible genotypes and assess the probability of trait expression.

Sex chromosomes vs autosomes – tales from the genome

To be affected by an autosomal dominant disorder, a person only needs one mutated copy of the gene in each cell. In certain cases, a child inherits the disease from a parent who has it. Others may acquire the condition as a result of a new gene mutation and occur in people who have no family history of the disorder.
Both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations in autosomal recessive inheritance. The parents of a person with an autosomal recessive disorder each have one copy of the mutated gene, but they usually don’t display any signs or symptoms of the disease. In most cases, autosomal recessive disorders do not affect every generation of a family.
Mutations of genes on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes in each cell, cause X-linked dominant disorders. A mutation in one of the two copies of the gene in each cell is enough to induce the condition in females (who have two X chromosomes). A mutation in the only copy of the gene in each cell causes the condition in males (who have only one X chromosome). Males are more likely than females to have more serious symptoms of the condition. Fathers cannot pass on X-linked traits to their sons, which is a feature of X-linked inheritance (no male-to-male transmission).

Autosomal recessive vs. autosomal dominance

Pioneers like Atkinson and Suppes were among the first to try to use computer technology to improve learning (e.g., Atkinson, 1968; Suppes and Morningstar, 1968). Since then, the use of computer technology in schools has increased significantly, and experts expect that this trend will continue (U.S. Department of Education, 1994). The romanticized view of technology is that only having it in the classroom would help students learn and accomplish more. In the other hand, some people believe that money spent on technology and time spent by students using technology are both wasteful (see Education Policy Network, 1997). Several groups have reviewed the literature on technology and learning and concluded that it has tremendous potential to improve student performance and teacher learning, but only if it is used appropriately (e.g., Vanderbilt University’s Cognition and Technology Division, 1996; President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, 1997; Dede, 1998).
Many emerging technologies are interactive (Greenfield and Cocking, 1996), making it easier to construct environments where students can learn by doing, obtain input, and constantly improve their understanding and develop new knowledge (Barron et al., 1998; Bereiter and Scardamalia, 1998).

Mitosis vs. meiosis: side by side comparison

Masahiro Yano is a Japanese actor.

Difference between pedigree and bulk method.

supplementary details

Difference between multiple alleles and polygenic inheritance

Contributions of the authors

Incomplete dominance, codominance, polygenic traits, and

The majority of the experiments were carried out by TY and HN. The research was started and arranged by MY. The manuscript was written by TY, HN, and MY. The SNP was discovered by HN. JY investigated haplotypes and diversity. MN and TS led to the rice accessions’ SNP typing. The core rice selection was supported by KE, and the SNP analysis was performed by them. Many of the authors discussed the observations and offered input on the manuscript. The final manuscript was read and accepted by all contributors. This thesis was co-authored by Toshio Yamamoto and Hideki Nagasaki. Supplementary electronic content