As the sixteenth century progressed in new england the growing commerce:
In contrast to the chesapeake region, the population in new england:
This book takes a thematic look at English foreign policy in the sixteenth century, focusing on the role of honor, security issues, religious ideology, and commercial interests in policymaking. It emphasizes elements of continuity with the late-medieval past, but also contends that the European Reformation posed new challenges that necessitated policy rethinking. Rather than treating the sixteenth century as the beginning of England’s rise as a Great Power, the author emphasizes the systemic vulnerabilities of the English armed forces and shows that dangers and insecurity shaped foreign policy more than the Tudor rulers’ energy and trust.
The sixteenth century has long been regarded as a pivotal period in English foreign policy. Historians have described it as a period when monarchs turned away from the medieval world of chivalric warfare for crusading or territorial goals and toward more modern foreign-policy interests and strategies. According to this historiographical tradition, Tudor monarchs eventually accepted Henry VI’s defeat in the Hundred Years’ War, as well as the subsequent loss of Normandy and Gascony, and devised policies that reflected England’s new geopolitical position as an island (or at least a portion of one) off the coast of Europe. As a result, England developed a ‘modern’ foreign policy with five main strands: increasing isolation from European conflicts; promotion of the ‘Britannic idea’ (union of England, Scotland, and Ireland); development of an oceanic strategy involving overseas exploration and colonial expansion; and the construction of a navy to defend England’s shores and assert dominance. 1 It was said that, as a result of the effective implementation of these measures, England had begun its career as a Great Power by the end of the sixteenth century.
At the heart of the english civil war was
Trevor-nine Roper’s essays on religion, the Reformation, and social change are collected in The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century. “The crisis in democracy, culture, and ideas that arose, both in Europe and in England, between the Reformation and the middle of the seventeenth century,” as Trevor-Roper states in his preface, served as the crucible for what “went down in the general social and intellectual revolution of the mid-seventeenth century.” The English Civil War, Restoration, and Glorious Revolution established the structural and intellectual foundations of modern liberty, of which we are heirs and beneficiaries. Trevor-essays Roper’s open up new perspectives on this pivotal era. Neither Catholics nor Protestants are spared in Trevor-study Roper’s of a period in which the discovery and extermination of witches was a central occurrence due to political and religious reasons.
In regard to geography, english colonies
In the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a wave of emigration—one of history’s great folk wanderings—swept from Europe to America in less than a century. This movement, driven by a variety of strong and varied motives, created a nation out of nothing and, by its very nature, formed the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.
The United States of America is the product of two major forces: the immigration of European peoples with their diverse ideas, traditions, and national characteristics, as well as the influence of a new country that altered these distinctly European cultural traits. Colonial America was, by definition, a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic, successive waves of English, French, Germans, Scots, Irish, Dutch, Swedes, and others attempted to transplant their cultures and customs to the modern world. However, the influence of America’s unique geographic circumstances, the interplay of various national groups on one another, and the sheer impossibility of preserving old-world ways in a raw, modern continent eventually resulted in drastic changes. These changes were incremental and almost imperceptible at first. However, the result was a new social trend that, though it mirrored European society in many respects, had a distinctively American character.
Puritans viewed individual and personal freedom as:
Surprisingly, England, Wales, and Scotland’s commercial rise has not been hailed as a miracle. In several respects, however, Britain’s trade expansion has been more spectacular and long-lasting than the Netherlands’. The British monopoly on world trade began in the second half of the seventeenth century and lasted until the beginning of the twentieth century. Perhaps more miraculous is the fact that Britain’s dominance in world trade contributed to its status as the world’s first industrial country. The Dutch, on the other hand, did not begin to industrialize until after they had lost their dominant position in international trade. The new book by David Ormrod tries to untangle the forces that fueled England’s commercial ascendancy and those that fueled the Dutch decline during this time period. While the work clearly reflects a lifetime’s worth of research, there are some aspects of the study that merit further examination, particularly Ormrod’s discussion of English and Dutch operations in the East and West Indies. According to recent research, Britain fared much better than France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands in the ‘fresh’ economy provided by opportunities outside of Europe.