A organism must purposefully model a behavior in order for others to learn from it.
(1) The mechanism by which the lens changes shape in order to better focus images on the retina. (2) The process of constructing new schemas or changing existing ones to account for new artifacts or experiences, according to Piaget’s theory of cognitive growth.
A technique for fostering divergent thinking by encouraging people to suggest as many alternatives to an issue as they can without fear of being viewed negatively by others, regardless of how far-fetched their ideas are.
As a consequence of the pairing or interaction of the two stimuli, a previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke a response identical or similar to one that was originally elicited by another stimulus.
A method of therapy developed by Aaron Beck that involves clients and therapists working together to define and correct distorted thinking habits that are thought to be at the root of their emotional problems.
Adrenal hormones that increase the supply of stored nutrients to meet the increased energy demands of dealing with stressful events, thereby enhancing the body’s resistance to stress. Cortical steroids are another name for them.
Reptiles and research
Navigating an unknown city almost often results in anxiety about going from point A to point B. This ambiguity prompts the collection of knowledge. Though navigational uncertainty is normal, little is known about the knowledge that people seek when they are unsure. At least for some environments, the primary information categories with environments are landmarks (distal or local), landmark configurations (relation between two or more landmarks), and a distinct geometry. Uncertainty can lead people to seek out one of these types of knowledge. Existing research helps to inform both predictions and empirical work on this subject. This analysis examines applicable cognitive literature before recommending analytical methods for better understanding information-seeking behaviors caused by uncertainty. We suggest, for example, that analyzing continuous navigation data will reveal valuable information seeking insights. The benefits of continuous data will be clarified using one paradigm, spatial reorientation, which deliberately generates ambiguity by disorienting and cue conflict. Although this and other approaches have been used in the past, the evidence has mostly represented the final decision. Continuous actions when performing a task will expose the cognition-action loop that contributes to spatial learning and decision making.
2016 spring gathering elder virgle stephens, stoney nakoda
This is a follow-up to my previous entry, Regulation Notes: In today’s article, I’ll look at Arvid Aulin-expanded Ahmavaara’s form of the required variety law (as implemented by Francis Heylighen). As I previously said, Ross Ashby, a brilliant mind and founder of cybernetics, devised the rule of necessary variety (LRV). Only variety can consume variety, according to the rule. The number of possible states for a system is referred to as variety. This is the same as entropy in mathematics. A coin, for example, can be shown to have two possible outcomes: Heads or Tails. As a result, if a consumer wishes to select one of two outcomes at random, the coin may be used. The user will flip the coin to pick one of two choices at random. However, if the consumer has six options, the coin cannot be used to effectively select one of the six outcomes. A six-sided die can be used in this situation. A six-sided die has a total of six sides. This is a clear description for how variation consumes variety.
The controller will find ways to amp up variety while still meeting the system’s external demands. Let’s look at the coin and the six options once more. The consumer can toss the coin three times or use three coins and make a decision based on the three coin toss results (the variety for three coin-tosses is 8). This is a method of increasing variety in order to obtain the necessary variety. The aim of regulation in cybernetics is to ensure that external disruptions do not exceed the critical variables. The feasibility of a system depends on the critical variables. Blood pressure, body temperature, and other vital factors in an animal are only a few examples. To ensure that the animal survives, the critical variables must be held within a certain range. D stands for external disruptions, E for critical variables, and A for behavior open to the regulator. As previously stated, the variable’s variety is expressed as statistical entropy. If A is some kind of variable, the entropy H(A) is a measure of its variety, as Aulin-Ahmavaara points out.
4 wacky rigging methods | what it looks like underwater
Animal culture refers to the emerging hypothesis of non-human animals studying culture through socially transmitted behaviors. For decades, the presence of culture in non-human cultures has been a source of contention, owing to a lack of a concise description for the term “culture.” Many leading scientists, on the other hand, believe that culture is a medium rather than a finished product. Most experts agree that this mechanism includes the social transmission of novel behavior, both among peers and through generations.  This type of behavior can be shared by a group of animals, but it is not always shared by different groups of the same species.
The idea of culture in other animals dates back to Aristotle in classical antiquity and more recently to Charles Darwin, although the term “culture” was coined in the 1940s by Japanese primatologists who discovered socially transmitted food behaviors.
 The use of “involvement, continuity, adaptation, and mission” is one concept of culture, especially in relation to the organizational aspect.
 Cultural features that are indicators of a good organizational system are more likely to be assimilated into our daily lives. The most popular companies are those that employ the four aforementioned elements of culture. As a result, cultures that are better at involving their people in a common goal have a far higher rate of success than cultures that do not. “[s]ocially transmitted behavior patterns that serve to link human populations to their ecological settings,” according to another concept of culture.  This concept establishes a connection between cultural activity and the environment. Culture is reflected in many facets of our current and past societies because it is a form of adaptation to one’s climate.